The calamity of thursday
Content:
Unconditional obedience to the prophet
The narrations of the calamity of thursday
Analysis of the event
Why did the prophet want to write this document?
Was the will about succession?
Could the prophet not have left a will?
Pretexts to justify the actions of Umar and his followers
Abu Bakr on his deathbed
Umar on his deathbed

Chronologically, this incident happened after the prophet ordered most of the companions to join the military expedition of Usama ibn Zayd and after Abu Bakr's despicable attempt to lead the congregational prayers on behalf of the prophet.

Unconditional obedience to the prophet
The companions who were present in the room of the prophet got into a loud dispute in the presence of the prophet who only willed to write what will save his Ummah from going astray. The believers should not raise their voices above that of the prophet and in his presence:
Quran 49:2
O you who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

They accused the prophet of speaking nonsense because the pain of his illness overtook him, they accused him of being delirious. The messenger only speaks the truth and not out of desire. Allah taught him and he attained completion:

Quran 53:2-6
Your Companion is neither astray nor being misled. Nor does he (prophet) speak out of his desire. (What he says) is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him, the Lord of Strength; so he attained completion.
مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى {2} وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى {3} إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى {4} عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى {5} ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى {6}

Would an honored messenger speak nonsense?? It is allah who honored him and not a human being. Would Allah send us a prophet who will talk nonsense and be delirious at any instance of his life?? This is a prophet, source of guidance for God's sake, an infallible!!! Did any other prophet speak nonsense in any instance of his life??? Certainly not! Then how could the seal of prophethood, the noble and the truthful speak nonsense?? How obnoxious their behaviour was indeed!

Quran 69:40-43
Most surely, it is the Word brought by an honored Messenger, And it is not the word of a poet; little is it that you believe; Nor the word of a soothsayer; little is it that you mind. It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds.
إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ - وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوْلِ شَاعِرٍ قَلِيلًا مَا تُؤْمِنُونَ - وَلَا بِقَوْلِ كَاهِنٍ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ - تَنزِيلٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

The necessity to believe in the messenger of Allah: Could the noble prophet speak nonsense when Allah orders us to believe in his prophet who will make for us a light with which we will walk (guidance)?!

Quran 57:28
O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah and believe in His Messenger: He will give you two portions of His mercy, and make for you a light with which you will walk, and forgive you, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful;
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Unconditional obedience to the prophet: Allah has ordered us to obey the prophet. He did not say to obey him under some specific circumstances. This form of unconditional obedience describes our belief in him.

Quran 5:92
Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and beware (of evil): if ye do turn back, know ye that it is Our Messenger's duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner.
وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَاحْذَرُواْ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلاَغُ الْمُبِينُ

Those who disobeyed the prophet are unbelievers and Allah does not love the unbelievers.

Quran 3:31-32
Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful - Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers.
قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

Quran 4:59
O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the last day; this is better and very good in the end.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

Quran 24:54
Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn back, then on him rests that which is imposed on him and on you rests that which is imposed on you; and if you obey him, you are on the right way; and nothing rests on the Messenger but clear delivering (of the message).
قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُم مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ

Quran 8:20
O you who believe! obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn back from Him while you hear.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ

Quran 47:33
O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not make your deeds of no effect.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ

Quran 8:46
And obey Allah and His Messenger and do not quarrel for then you will be weak in hearts and your power will depart, and be patient; surely Allah is with the patient.
وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَنَازَعُواْ فَتَفْشَلُواْ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Quran 4:80
He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah: But if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds).
مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ وَمَن تَوَلَّى فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

Quran 3:132
And obey Allah and the messenger, that ye may find mercy.
وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

Quran 81:19-22
Most surely it is the Word of an honored messenger, the processor of strength, having an honorable place with the Lord of the Dominion, One (to be) obeyed, and faithful in trust. And your companion is not gone mad.
إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ - ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِندَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ - مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ - وَمَا صَاحِبُكُم بِمَجْنُونٍ

Once the prophet decides on a matter, no one is allowed to intervene to alter the decision:

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

We ought to respect every decision made by the prophet

Quran 59:7
Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil):
مَّا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاء مِنكُمْ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

All the above verses teach us that obedience to the messenger is unconditional. One's voice should not be raised above that of the prophet or in his presence. Obedience to the prophet is obedience to Allah. Any matter decided by the prophet should not be disputed, his judgement is the final decision. So don't you think that the incident of thursday was a big mistake and a sign of pure disobedience to Allah (SWT) and his messenger Muhammad (s)?!

The narrations of the calamity of thursday

Sa'id b. Jubair reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: Thursday, (and then said): What is this Thursday? He then wept so much that his tears moistened the pebbles. I said: Ibn 'Abbas, what is (significant) about Thursday? He (Ibn 'Abbas) said: The illness of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) took a serious turn (on this day), and he said: Come to me, so that I should write for you a document that you may not go astray after me. They (the Companions around him) disputed, and it is not meant to dispute in the presence of the Apostle. They said: How is lie (Allah's Apostle)? Has he lost his consciousness? Try to learn from him (this point). He (the Holy Prophet) said: Leave me. I am better in the state (than the one in which you are engaged). I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality. He (the narrator) said: He (Ibn Abbas) kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) said: But I forgot that.
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏سعيد بن منصور ‏ ‏وقتيبة بن سعيد ‏ ‏وأبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ‏ ‏وعمرو الناقد ‏ ‏واللفظ ‏ ‏لسعيد ‏ ‏قالوا حدثنا ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سليمان الأحول ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سعيد بن جبير ‏ ‏قال قال ‏ ‏ابن عباس
‏يوم الخميس وما يوم الخميس ثم بكى حتى بل دمعه الحصى فقلت يا ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏وما يوم الخميس قال اشتد برسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وجعه فقال ‏ ‏ائتوني أكتب لكم كتابا لا تضلوا بعدي فتنازعوا وما ينبغي عند نبي تنازع وقالوا ما شأنه ‏ ‏أهجر ‏ ‏استفهموه قال دعوني فالذي أنا فيه خير أوصيكم بثلاث أخرجوا المشركين من ‏ ‏جزيرة العرب ‏ ‏وأجيزوا ‏ ‏الوفد بنحو ما كنت أجيزهم قال وسكت عن الثالثة أو قالها فأنسيتها
‏قال ‏ ‏أبو إسحق إبراهيم ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏الحسن بن بشر ‏ ‏قال حدثنا ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏بهذا الحديث
References:
     Sahih Muslim: Book 013, #4014, Kitab Al-Wasiyya; Page 640, #(1637)-20 (Arabic version)
     Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal: v1,p222 [or entire book: p193,#1935];

Here are the takeaway points of the above narration:

  1. The prophet desired to write a document that will protect the Muslims and believers from straying off.
  2. As a result, the companions disputed in the presence of the prophet
  3. The translator of the narration writes that the companions asked whether the prophet lost conciousness and said: "try to understand what he is saying." Why would they say "try to understand what he is saying" if the prophet really lost consciousness? The fact is the term they used Ahjara means to talk nonsense and not to lose consciousness! The translator deceifully gave the incorrect translation of the word used to mislead the readers and hide the gravity of the incident! So they were saying: "Is he talking nonsense? try to understand what he is saying."
  4. The prophet made his will: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia, show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality.
  5. Sa'id b. Jubair said that Ibn Abbas kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) just forgot what the third point was.
The following narration does not bring any new detail. Here as well, the translator uses the same deception!
Sa'id b. Jubair reported from Ibn Abbas that he said: Thursday, and what about Thursday? Then tears began to flow until I saw them on his cheeks as if they were the strings of pearls. He (the narrator) said that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Bring me a shoulder blade and ink-pot (or tablet and inkpot), so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray. They said: Allah's Messenger (may peace upon him) is in the state of unconsciousness.
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏إسحق بن إبراهيم ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏وكيع ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏مالك بن مغول ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏طلحة بن مصرف ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سعيد بن جبير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏أنه قال
‏يوم الخميس وما يوم الخميس ثم جعل تسيل دموعه حتى رأيت على خديه كأنها نظام اللؤلؤ قال قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ائتوني بالكتف ‏ ‏والدواة ‏ ‏أو اللوح ‏ ‏والدواة ‏ ‏أكتب لكم كتابا لن تضلوا بعده أبدا فقالوا إن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏يهجر
References:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 013, #4015, Kitab Al-Wasiyya; Page 640, #(1637)-21 (Arabic version)
     Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal: v1,p355 [or entire book: p291,#3336];

The next narration provides some new crucial details:

Ibn Abbas reported: When Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, 'Umar b. al-Kbattab being one of them. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that. Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'an with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us. Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him And some among them said what 'Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said: Get up (and go away) 'Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) could not write (or dictate) the document for them.
‏و حدثني ‏ ‏محمد بن رافع ‏ ‏وعبد بن حميد ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏عبد ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏و قال ‏ ‏ابن رافع ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏عبد الرزاق ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏معمر ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الزهري ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏قال
‏لما حضر رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وفي البيت رجال فيهم ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏فقال النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏هلم ‏ ‏أكتب لكم كتابا لا تضلون بعده فقال ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏إن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قد غلب عليه الوجع وعندكم القرآن حسبنا كتاب الله فاختلف أهل البيت فاختصموا فمنهم من يقول قربوا يكتب لكم رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏كتابا لن تضلوا بعده ومنهم من يقول ما قال ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏فلما أكثروا اللغو ‏ ‏والاختلاف عند رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قوموا
‏قال ‏ ‏عبيد الله ‏ ‏فكان ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏يقولا ‏ ‏إن ‏ ‏الرزية ‏ ‏كل ‏ ‏الرزية ‏ ‏ما حال بين رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وبين أن يكتب لهم ذلك الكتاب من اختلافهم ‏ ‏ولغطهم
References:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 013, #4016, Kitab Al-Wasiyya; Page 640, #1637-22 (Arabic version)

Here are the takeaway points of the above narration:

  1. Umar ibn al-Kbattab was present in the room.
  2. The prophet desired to write a document that will protect the Muslims and believers from straying off.
  3. Umar interjected and said: "Verily Allah's Messenger is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'an with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us"
  4. The people in the room splat in two groups: a group that wanted the prophet to write the document and the other groups led by Umar who did not want the prophet to write the document.
  5. The two groups indulged in loud dispute in the presence of the prophet.
  6. The prophet expelled them from the room due to their dispute and noise.
  7. The prophet could not write the document for them.
  8. ibn Abbas considered it a heavy loss and cried heavily about the incident.

In the following narration, the translator gives a better interpretation of the word Ahjara. He translates it to delirious, which in this context (the prophet was very ill) means temporary disorder of mental faculties, hallucinating, having delusions or talking nonsense.

Narrated Said bin Jubair: that he heard Ibn 'Abbas saying, "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that Ibn 'Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked Ibn 'Abbas, "What is (about) Thursday?" He said, "When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah's Apostle deteriorated, he said, 'Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray. The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet, They said, 'What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him (to understand). The Prophet replied, 'Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.' Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.' " The sub-narrator added, "The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn 'Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.'
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏محمد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏ابن عيينة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سليمان بن أبي مسلم الأحول ‏ ‏سمع ‏ ‏سعيد بن جبير ‏ ‏سمع ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏رضي الله عنهما ‏ ‏يقول
‏يوم الخميس وما يوم الخميس ثم بكى حتى بل دمعه الحصى قلت يا ‏ ‏أبا عباس ‏ ‏ما يوم الخميس قال اشتد برسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وجعه فقال ‏ ‏ائتوني بكتف أكتب لكم كتابا لا تضلوا بعده أبدا فتنازعوا ولا ينبغي عند نبي تنازع فقالوا ما له ‏ ‏أهجر ‏ ‏استفهموه فقال ذروني فالذي أنا فيه خير مما تدعونني إليه فأمرهم بثلاث قال أخرجوا المشركين من ‏ ‏جزيرة العرب ‏ ‏وأجيزوا ‏ ‏الوفد بنحو ما كنت ‏ ‏أجيزهم ‏ ‏والثالثة خير إما أن سكت عنها وإما أن قالها فنسيتها ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏هذا من قول ‏ ‏سليمان
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, #393, Book: al-Jaziyat; Page 669, #3168 (Arabic version)

The takeaway points of the above narration are about the same the one reported by Muslim (#4014).

The following four narrations repeat the same points and the last three of them point that the prophet expelled them from the room and could not write his will. ibn Abbas called it a great desaster!

Narrated Ibn Abbas: Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Apostle became worse (on Thursday) and he said, fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a prophet. Some said, "What is wrong with him ? (Do you think ) he is delirious (seriously ill)? Ask him ( to understand his state )." So they went to the Prophet and asked him again. The Prophet said, "Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for." Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, "Turn the pagans out of the 'Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them." (Said bin Jubair, the sub-narrator said that Ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, "I forgot it.") (See Hadith No. 116 Vol. 1)
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, #716, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 922, #4431 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah: Ibn Abbas said, "When Allah's Apostle was on his deathbed and there were some men in the house, he said, 'Come near, I will write for you something after which you will not go astray.' Some of them ( i.e. his companions) said, 'Allah's Apostle is seriously ill and you have the (Holy) Quran. Allah's Book is sufficient for us.' So the people in the house differed and started disputing. Some of them said, 'Give him writing material so that he may write for you something after which you will not go astray.' while the others said the other way round. So when their talk and differences increased, Allah's Apostle said, "Get up." Ibn Abbas used to say, "No doubt, it was very unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing for them that writing because of their differences and noise."
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, #717, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 922, #4432 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: When Allah's Apostle was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, the Prophet said, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill and you have the Qur'an; so the Book of Allah is enough for us." The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said "Go near so that the Prophet may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray," while the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet, Allah's Apostle said, "Go away!" Narrated 'Ubaidullah: Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was very unfortunate that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 70, #573, Book: Patients; Page 1232, #5669 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
When the time of the death of the Prophet approached while there were some men in the house, and among them was 'Umar bin Al-Khatttab, the Prophet said, "Come near let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Quran, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us." The people in the house differed and disputed. Some of them said, "Come near so that Allah's Apostle may write for you a writing after which you will not go astray," while some of them said what 'Umar said. When they made much noise and differed greatly before the Prophet, he said to them, "Go away and leave me." Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was a great disaster that their difference and noise prevented Allah's Apostle from writing that statement for them.
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 92, #468, Book: Holding Fast to the Qur'an and Sunnah; Page 1546, #7366 (Arabic version)

Narrated Said bin Jubair: Ibn 'Abbas said, "Thursday! What (great thing) took place on Thursday!" Then he started weeping till his tears wetted the gravels of the ground . Then he said, "On Thursday the illness of Allah's Apostle was aggravated and he said, "Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter and people should not differ before a prophet. They said, "Allah's Apostle is seriously sick.' The Prophet said, "Let me alone, as the state in which I am now, is better than what you are calling me for." The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, "Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them." I forgot the third (order)" (Ya'qub bin Muhammad said, "I asked Al-Mughira bin 'Abdur-Rahman about the Arabian Peninsula and he said, 'It comprises Mecca, Medina, Al-Yama-ma and Yemen." Ya'qub added, "And Al-Arj, the beginning of Tihama.")
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, #288, Book: Jihaad; Page 643, #3053 (Arabic version)

Narrated 'Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah: Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the ailment of the Prophet became worse, he said, 'Bring for me (writing) paper and I will write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.' But 'Umar said, 'The Prophet is seriously ill, and we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us.' But the companions of the Prophet differed about this and there was a hue and cry. On that the Prophet said to them, 'Go away (and leave me alone). It is not right that you should quarrel in front of me." Ibn 'Abbas came out saying, "It was most unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise. (Note: It is apparent from this Hadith that Ibn 'Abbes had witnessed the event and came out saying this statement. The truth is not so, for Ibn 'Abbas used to say this statement on narrating the Hadith and he had not witnessed the event personally. See Fath Al-Bari Vol. 1, p.220 footnote.)
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 3, #114, Book: Knowledge; Page 42, #114 (Arabic version)

Ibn Abbas narrated: "The Messenger of God said bring me a tablet (lawh) and an inkpot (dawat), so that I can write for you a document, after which you will not go astray". Some people said that the Messenger of God was talking deliriously".
References:
     The History of Tabari, Volume 9 translated by Ismail. K. Poonawala p 175

The following narration brings few more details:

Umar ibn Khattab said: "We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him, and there was a screen between the women and between us. The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, said: Wash me with seven waterskins and bring something to write upon and an inkpot, I shall write a document for you and you will never be misguided till eternity. The women said bring to the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him what he wants. Umar said; I said to them: Keep quiet. You are like the women of Yusuf when he is ill and you shed tears, and when he is healthy you hold him by his neck. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him said: They are better than you".
عن عمر بن الخطاب قال: كنا عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وبيننا وبين النساء حجاب، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: اغسلوني بسبع قرب، وأتوني بصحيفة ودواة أكتب لكم كتابا لن تضلوا بعده أبدا، فقالت النسوة: ائتوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بحاجته، قال عمر فقلت: اسكتن فإنكن صواحبه إذا مرض عصرتن أعينكن، وإذا صح أخذتن بعنقه، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: هن خير منكم.
(ابن سعد) (أخرجه ابن سعد في الطبقات الكبرى [2/243] ص).‏
References:
     Kitab al Tabaqat al Kabir, by Ibn Sad Vol 2 English translation by S. Moinul Haq p 305
     Kanz al-U'ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, vol 7, #18771 (متفرقات الأحاديث التي تتعلق بوفاته صلى الله عليه وسلم وغسله وتكفينه وصلاة الناس عليه بعد دفنه ووقت الدفن)

Here are the takeaway points of the above narration:

  1. There were women in the room with a screen sepearating them from the men.
  2. The prophet desired to write a document for them and you they never be misguided till eternity.
  3. The women wanted the prophet to write the document.
  4. But Umar told the women to keep quiet and accused them of being like the wives of Yusuf when he was ill...
  5. The prophet responded: "They (the wives of the prophet) are better than you (Umar and his followers)"

Ahmad ibn Hanbal reported several of this narrations and here the links:
http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/Display.asp?hnum=1834&doc=6
http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/Display.asp?hnum=2835&doc=6
http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/Display.asp?hnum=2945&doc=6
http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/Display.asp?hnum=3165&doc=6

Here is an interesting narration from Musnad Ahmad as well:

Jabir said: "The Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked for a paper to write his Will after which which no one would get astray, but Umar objected until he rejected it".
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏موسى بن داود ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏ابن لهيعة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي الزبير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏جابر " أن النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏دعا عند موته بصحيفة ليكتب فيها كتابا لا يضلون بعده قال فخالف عليها ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏حتى رفضها " .

Here is the narration reported by ibn Abdul Hadeed in Sharh Nahjul Balagha:

ibn Abbas narrated from his father: "when the prophet was nearing his demise, and in his house were men including Umar. The prophet asked for the writing material so he can write to them something to protect them from straying off. Umar uttered a word which meant that the pain has overcome the prophet and said also that they had the Quran and it was sufficient to them. The people in this house differed and disputed. Some asked the prophet to write the document while others said what Umar said. When the noise and dispute got louder and out of control, the prophet became angry and expelled them as their behaviour was unacceptable. They left the house. Then the prophet died on that same day..."
قال أبو بكر : وحدثنا الحسن بن الربيع ، عن عبد الرزاق ، عن معمر ، عن الزهري ، عن على عبد الله بن العباس عن أبيه ، قال : لما حضرت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الوفاة ، وفى البيت رجال فيهم عمر بن الخطاب ، قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله : ائتونى بدواة وصحيفة ، أكتب لكم كتابا لا تضلون بعدى ، فقال عمر كلمة معناها أن الوجع قد غلب على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، ثم قال : عندنا القرآن حسبنا كتاب الله ، فاختلف من في البيت واختصموا ، فمن قائل يقول : القول ما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، ومن قائل يقول : القول ما قال عمر ، فلما أكثروا اللغط واللغو والاختلاف غضب رسول الله ، فقال : ( قوموا أنه لا ينبغى لنبى أن يختلف عنده هكذا ) ، فقاموا ، فمات رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في ذلك اليوم ، فكان ابن عباس يقول : إن الرزية كل الرزية ما حال بيننا وبين كتاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله - يعنى الاختلاف واللغط . قلت : هذا الحديث قد خرجه الشيخان محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري ، ومسلم بن الحجاج القشيرى في صحيحيهما ، واتفق المحدثون كافة على روايته .

al-Tabarani reported the following narration from Umar ibn Khattab, in his Mu'ujam al-Awsat:

Umar said: "when the prophet got ill, he said: 'bring me something so I can write to you a document after which you will never go astray. We strongly disliked his order. The women who were standing behind the curtains repeated the order of the prophet: did you not hear what the prophet said?' So I (Umar) said: you are all like the women of the prophet Yussef, when he is ill and you shed tears, and when he is healthy you hold him by his neck. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah said: 'They are better than you.'"
عن عمر بن الخطّاب قال: لمّا مرض النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) قال: " ادعوا لي بصحيفة ودواة أكتب لكم كتاباً لا تضلّوا بعده أبدا " فكرهنا ذلك أشدّ الكراهة، ثمّ قال: " ادعوا لي بصحيفة أكتب لكم كتاباً لا تضلّوا بعد أبداً ". فقال النسوة من وراء الستر: ألا تسمعون ما يقول رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)؟! فقلت: إنّكنّ صويحبات يوسف (عليه السلام)، إذا مرض رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) عصرتنّ أعينكنّ وإذا أصبح(6) ركبتنّ عنقه. فقال رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): " دعوهنّ فإنّهنّ خير منكم "

Clearly, as the other narrations have shown, Umar's impudent interruption was a clear intention to oppose the prophet's order! Allah said in the Quran:

Quran 4:115
And whoever acts hostilely to the Messenger after that guidance has become manifest to him, and follows other than the way of the believers, We will turn him to that to which he has (himself) turned and make him enter hell; and it is an evil resort.
وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءتْ مَصِيرًا

Was not Umar's action that of an enemy?? Does Umar know better than the prophet about the fate of this Ummah? Does he have any right to oppose the prophet's order??? Umar's intentions were clear. He did not want the prophet to remind his companions of what he declared at Ghadeer Khum. Umar was determined to do what it takes to oppose Ali's successorship! Otherwise, what was he afraid of?? Recall that Umar was not even supposed to be in Medina! He was ordered to join to ilitary expedition of Usama ibn Zayd. Not only has he disobeyed the prophet's order to join Usama's army, he dared to be in the house of the prophet and oppose the prophet's will to write an important document. Yes, it is because of Umar's evil intentions and deeds that we are so divided and torn apart today!

al-Tabarani also reported the following narration, in Mu'ujam al-Kabeer:

One of the women who was present in the house said: "Shame on you! The prophet has promised you to ...." Then some of the men in the room responded: "Shut up, you have no mind..." The prophet then said...
فقالت امرأة ممّن حضر: ويحكم! عهد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) إليكم.. فقال بعض القوم: اسكتي فإنّه لا عقل لك. فقال النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): " أنتم لا أحلام لكم"

Do you see how much tensions was in the room of the prophet, just before his demise, and just because he wanted to write them a document after which they would never be misguided?? Is this how these misguided companions planned to thank the prophet?? They have truly erred.

Analysis of the event
The narrations given above give an idea of what happened that day. ibn Abbas described it to be calamity, a heavy loss and a disaster. While on his deathbed and in the presence of some of his companions, probably the most prominent of them, the prophet ordered them to bring him the writing materials to write a document for them to keep them guided till eternity. What a wonderful document it would have been. Before leaving this life, the prophet wanted to ensure that the Ummah, or at least some of them, remains on the right path, by leaving them a document he wrote with his own hands. Every believer would have welcomed such order. But not Umar and his party or followers.

A group of the companions and the women wanted the prophet to write such document, but Umar and his party did not. The disobeying party said that the prophet was talking nonsense! Is this how the prophet is supposed to be treated on his deathbed?? Is this how you treat him when all he wanted is ensure that the Muslims do not stray off? Is this how you respect and treat the prophet, especially when he is in pain and dying?? Have they forgotten who they were talking to??? Have they forgotten that they were talking to the master of all prophets, the seal of prophethood, the beloved of Allah, the prophet that does not speak from desire but from revelation??? The sound mind cannot find any excuse for such despicable behaviour.

The people differed in their opinions and began to dispute loudly in the room, although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet. other narrations say that they made much noise and differed greatly before the Prophet. This is the Quran's response to such behaviour:

Quran 49:2
O you who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

The prophet responded to their disrespect, accusations and nonsense:

Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for.

In other narrations:

On that the Prophet said to them, 'Go away (and leave me alone). It is not right that you should quarrel in front of me

Clearly, the prophet did not approve of their behaviour, that is the behaviour of those who provoked the turmoil!

Umar said to the prophet:

The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Quran, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us.
His supporters said what Umar said causing all the turmoil in the room. Here, I would like to ask Umar: Who did Allah order us to follow and obey and listen to and seek guidance from: Umar or Muhammad??? Who is the prophet here: Umar or Muhammad??? Who has been receiving the revelations: Umar of Muhammad??? Who speaks the absolute truth at any instance of time: Umar or Muhammad?? Since when the decision of a companion is the preferred over that of the prophet?? Some sided with the prophet while others sided with Umar. Both can't be right and the prophet can never be wrong. Therefore, Umar and his supporters have been wrongful!!! Have they not learned that nothing but the truth comes out of the mouth of the prophet?? who knows better what is best for the Ummah? Him or the prophet? Who is more knowledgeable? Him or the prophet?

In other words, Umar is telling the prophet they don't need his document, they don't need his Sunnah, as the Quran is enough and that is all is needed. Not only is this response disrespecful and vilifying, but stems from Umar's ignorance and blindness, for the following reasons:

  1. Hadith al-Thqalayn, in which the prophet ordered his Ummah to adhere to the Quran and Ahlul Bayt, clearly proves that the Quran is not enough! Yes, the Quran is the book of Allah and complete, but someone is needed to clarify it for us. Has Umar understood everything in the Quran and message of Allah? How would the future generation understand the message of the prophet without the Sunnah???

  2. Today, don't we need the Sunnah to understand the Quran??? Can we comprehend the Quran without reference to the Hadith??

  3. If Umar was convinced that the Quran was sufficient for us, then why did he seek the help of Imam Ali to solve the daily problems presented to him during his reign? Did he not pray to Allah to never be put in a front a complicated case without the presence of Ali??

    Sa'id al-Musayyib reported: "Umar Ibn al-Khattab used to beg God to preserve him from a perplexing case which the father of al-Hasan was not present to decide." Furthermore Umar said: "If there was not Ali, Umar would have perished."

    فقال عمر: أعوذ بالله أن أعيش في قوم لست فيهم يا أبا حسن

    لولا عليّ هلك عمر

    Clearly, Umar's claim is pure ignorance! The guy was not even aware of the Law of Tayammum!

    What is the basis of Umar's statement? A revelation? Knowledge? What knowledge would that be?? Why did he not oppose the prophet duting his Hadith or when he was explaining the Quran? Why did he have to say what he said then, at that moment, when the prophet did not want but to put in writing what is best for the Muslims???

    Quran 16:44
    With clear arguments and scriptures; and We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to men what has been revealed to them, and that haply they may reflect.
    بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

The wives of the prophet wanted to comply with the request of the prophet regarding his will, but Umar insulted them, and in front of the prophet, by comparing them to the ill-mannered women of prophet Yusuf:
Keep quiet. You are like the women of Yusuf when he is ill and you shed tears, and when he is healthy you hold him by his neck.
قال عمر فقلت: اسكتن فإنكن صواحبه إذا مرض عصرتن أعينكن، وإذا صح أخذتن بعنقه

And the prophet responded:

Thereupon the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him said: They are better than you".
فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: هن خير منكم

Umar's disrespectful behavior and disobedience caused the prophet to rebuke him by telling him that His (prophet's) wives were better than Umar and his supporters. How could a believer demean the wives of the prophet, in front of the prophet, and in his house, and on his deathbed???? Is this truly the character of a believer??

As a result of all this, the prophet did not write the document:

It was a great disaster that their difference and noise prevented Allah's Apostle from writing that statement for them.
فكان ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏يقول إن الرزية كل الرزية ما حال بين رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وبين أن يكتب لهم ذلك الكتاب من اختلافهم ولغطهم

As the Quran states, it is not fitting for a believer to have any option about a matter decided by the prophet:

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

Umar interrupted the prophet, he claimed that the Quran was enough (which is a lie), his supporters repeated that he said and accused the prophet of talking nonsense! I wonder why History does not name who these people are! To this, the Quran says that whoever intervenes against what the prophet has decided, is indeed on a clearly wrong Path. Moroever, this is clearly not the character of a believer!

The Quran also states that all believers must obey the prophet:

Quran 47:33
O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not make your deeds of no effect.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ

Has the disobeying party allowed the prophet to write his document?? Have they not disobeyed the order of the prophet to bring him the materials so he could write them that document??

Has the desobeying party followed the prophet during this calamity?? Have they listened to him?? Have they obeyed him as Allah made it incombent upon them to do so??

Quran 3:31-32
Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful - Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers.
قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

No wonder ibn Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. No wonder he considered this day a disaster, a heavy loss and calamity!!! Is this the way to treat the prophet on his deathbed? Is this the way to treat the prophet after all he has done for the Ummah???

What further proves their erring is not only their loud disputes in the presence of the prophet, but that the prophet rejected the saying of the opposition and expelled the companions from his room. Don't you think the angered the prophet what what they have done, especially when he was on his deathbed and wanted to save them with this blessed writing, which is coming from Allah and not from him?? Most certainly, he willed to write something he had already mention, but wanted to emphasize it in writing to make sure the message gets across to everyone.

ibn Sa'ad reported in Tabaqat al-Kubra a narration from Jabir ibn Abdullah that when the prophet asked the writing materials to write a document that will prevent the Nation from straying off, there was great hue and sayings, and Umar spoke, then the prophet rejected his saying.

أخبرنا محمد بن عبد الله الأنصاري حدثني قرة بن خالد أخبرنا أبو الزبير أخبرنا جابر بن عبد الله الأنصاري قال لما كان في مرض رسول الله (ص) الذي توفي فيه دعا بصحيفة ليكتب فيها لأمته كتابا لا يضلون ولا يضلون قال : فكان في البيت لغط وكلام وتكلم عمر بن الخطاب قال : فرفضه النبي

It is not clear who the prophet expelled. Did he expel the disobeying group or did he expel them all? Logically, the prophet will not expel those who obey him.

Why did the prophet want to write this document?
The prophet knew throughtout his mission that many of the companions would become apostates, would cut the throat of one another, would turn their back to religion for the worldly things, after his demise. He knew that his nation would not survive peace and would go astray. That is why this document had to be written in order to save the Ummah. Several times, the prophet had told His nation to adhere to the Quran and Ahlul Bayt in order not to go astray. Today, we know the nation is astray because Muslims haven't obeyed this powerful and important Hadith!

The prophet's demise was nearing, and he wanted to reiterate his warning to his nation for the last time against descension and disunity and any straying from the right path. The prophet was concerned about the status of his young and weak nation. He had knowledge of the calamities that were about to strike the nation. Calamities such as Muslims turning apostates, cutting one another throats for the worldly things, rulers that do not judge by the Quran and the Sunnah of the prophet, oppressors and so on. He foretold lots of mishaps.

History has witnessed such calamities:

  1. The usurpation of the Caliphate from its rightful owners
  2. The usurpation of the inheritance of the progeny of the prophet and the properties of Fatimah
  3. The burning of the Hadith
  4. The introduction of innovations into Islam
  5. The fabrication of Hadith
  6. Mistreatment of Ahlul Bayt
  7. Oppression of the Muslims and the stealing of their properties
  8. Denial of Ahlul Bayt's virtues and supreme knowledge.
  9. Those who renagaded after the demise of the prophet.
  10. The competing for the pleasures of this world.
  11. The cutting of the throats of one another.

Here are some of these traditions:

Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount." 'Abdullah added: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what they did after you had left.'
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, #578, Book: al-Riqaq; Page 1395, #6576 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet stood up among us and addressed (saying) "You will be gathered, barefooted, naked, and uncircumcised (as Allah says): 'As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it..' (21.104) And the first human being to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection will be (the Prophet) Abraham Al-Khalil. Then will be brought some men of my followers who will be taken towards the left (i.e., to the Fire), and I will say: 'O Lord! My companions whereupon Allah will say: You do not know what they did after you left them. I will then say as the pious slave, Jesus said, And I was witness over them while I dwelt amongst them..........(up to) ...the All-Wise.' (5.117-118). The narrator added: Then it will be said that those people (relegated from Islam, that is) kept on turning on their heels (deserted Islam).
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, #533, Book: al-Riqaq; Page 1386, #6526 (Arabic version)

Narrated Uqba bin Amir: Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayers of the martyrs of Uhud eight years after (their death), as if bidding farewell to the living and the dead, then he ascended the pulpit and said, "I am your predecessor before you, and I am a witness on you, and your promised place to meet me will be Al-Haud (i.e. the Tank) (on the Day of Resurrection), and I am (now) looking at it from this place of mine. I am not afraid that you will worship others besides Allah, but I am afraid that worldly life will tempt you and cause you to compete with each other for it." That was the last look which I cast on Allah's Apostle.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, #374, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 847, #4042 (Arabic version)

Narrated 'Uqba bin 'Amir: The Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of the (battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, "I am your predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking at my Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not afraid that after me you will worship others besides Allah, but I am afraid that you will start competing for (the pleasures of) this world."
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, #434, Book: al-Riqaq; Page 1369, #6426 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 1397, #6590, Book: al-Riqaq - (Arabic version)

Narrated Abu Bakra: The Prophet said, "Time has come back to its original state which it had on the day Allah created the Heavens and the Earth. The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred, three of them are in succession, namely Dhul-Qa'da, Dhul Hijja and Muharram, (the fourth being) Rajab Mudar which is between Juma'da (ath-thamj and Sha'ban. The Prophet then asked, "Which month is this?" We said, "Allah and his Apostle know better." He kept silent so long that we thought that he would call it by a name other than its real name. He said, "Isn't it the month of Dhul-Hijja?" We said, "Yes." He said, "Which town is this?" We said, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He kept silent so long that we thought that he would call it t,y a name other than its real name. He said, "isn't it the town (of Mecca)?" We replied, "Yes." He said, "What day is today?" We replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He kept silent so long that we thought that he would call it by a name other than its real name. He said, "Isn't it the day of Nahr?" We replied, "Yes." He then said, "Your blood, properties and honor are as sacred to one another as this day of yours in this town of yours in this month of yours. You will meet your Lord, and He will ask you about your deeds. Beware! Do not go astray after me by cutting the necks of each other. It is incumbent upon those who are present to convey this message to those who are absent, for some of those to whom it is conveyed may comprehend it better than some of those who have heard it directly." (Muhammad, the sub-narrator, on mentioning this used to say: The Prophet then said, "No doubt! Haven't I delivered (Allah's) Message (to you)? Haven't I delivered Allah's message (to you)?"
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 68, #458, Book: al-Adaahi; Page 1212, #5550 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn Umar: We were talking about Hajjat-ul-Wada, while the Prophet was amongst us. We did not know what Hajjat-ul-Wada' signified. The Prophet praised Allah and then mentioned Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal and described him extensively, saying, "Allah did not send any prophet but that prophet warned his nation of Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal. Noah and the prophets following him warned (their people) of him. He will appear amongst you (O Muhammad's followers), and if it happens that some of his qualities may be hidden from you, but your Lord's State is clear to you and not hidden from you. The Prophet said it thrice. Verily, your Lord is not blind in one eye, while he (i.e. Ad-Dajjal) is blind in the right eye which looks like a grape bulging out (of its cluster). No doubt,! Allah has made your blood and your properties sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this town of yours, in this month of yours." The Prophet added: No doubt! Haven't I conveyed Allah's Message to you? " They replied, "Yes," The Prophet said thrice, "O Allah! Be witness for it." The Prophet added, "Woe to you!" (or said), "May Allah be merciful to you! Do not become infidels after me (i.e. my death) by cutting the necks (throats) of one another."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, #685, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 915, #4402 & 4403 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet said, "Beware! Do not renegade as (disbelievers) after me by striking (cutting) the necks of one another."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88, #200, Book: al-Fitan; Page 1493, #7079 (Arabic version)

Was the will about sucession?
Would turning out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia and showing hospitality to the (foreign) delegations prevent the nation from going astray? These points are so irrelevant to the issue of saving the Ummah from going astray. And assuming these points were true, then what was the purpose of the opposition??? And what about the third point?? Could it have been forgotten? The companions had great memorizing skills. How can someone who is capable of memorizing the Quran forget the third thing among the three mentioned? How? At least one could have remembered. At least the progeny of the prophet. It is impossible that all the companions forgot the third point. Will you forget such a thing, especially when these three points will save you from straying off and die a true believer??? Come on, this is quite difficult to believe. The details of this incident was remenbered, but not that third point??? This leads to the following question: Has this tradition been altered by the oppressors, whoever they may be?

Some scholars report that the prophet wanted to provide a written proof of the appointment of His successor, who was Ali ibn Abi Talib. A topic the prophet had addressed on several occasions, one of them being on His last sermon at Ghadir Khum, when he said: Whomsoever I am his master, Ali is also his master. Umar himself came to congratulate Ali. The companions who opposed the writing of the will knew about the prophet's decision, and their disgraceful opposition demonstrated their enmity to Ali and their refusal to let him be their caliph. Again, if the prophet wanted Abu Bakr to be the caliph, he wouldn't have sent him, along with Umar and other prominent Quraishi to Syria, in the military expedition of Usamah bin Zaid. But they did not go. Because they were concerned about the caliphate issue instead of the stability of the Ummah!

The renown scholar Imam Abdul Hamid Ghazzali said:

"Rasulullah declared "Of whomsoever I am Maula Ali is his Maula. Hadhrath Umar accepted this congratulating Ali saying "Congratulations you have become the Maula of men and women", but after this his desire for power overtook him and when the Prophet said "Bring me a pen and paper so that I can remove any doubts over who will succeed me, Hadhrath Umar [r] replied "Leave him for he is talking nonsense".
Reference:
     Abdul Hamid Ghazzali, Book: Sirr'ul Alameen, page 9

Umar: "I must complain to you about your cousin Ali, I asked him to join me but he refused. I often find him angry with me, why is this?

Ibne Abbas: "He believes that the Prophet reserved the Khilafath for him"

Umar: "Oh Ibn Abbas it is true that the Prophet intended and wished that Ali should attain the Caliphate. But the wish of the Prophet can carry no weight, as God did not will it to be so. The Prophet wished that Ali should be the Caliph, but God wished otherwise. The will of God prevailed, thus the Prophet's desire could not be fulfilled. See, the Prophet wished that his Uncle should embrace Islam, but God willed otherwise, therefore he did not become a Muslim. The Prophet wished to write a will giving the Caliphate to Ali, but I prevented him from doing so in the interests of Islam. The Prophet also came to know what was in my heart, and refrained from writing the will. The will of God prevailed".

Reference:
     Sharh Nahjul Balagha, by Ibn Abi Al Hadid, Vol 12. page 20-21, edited by Muhammad Abdul Fadl-Ibrahim (Cairo) 1959-64 edition

It appears that Umar admits that the prophet's will was to nominate Ali as his successor. But he also said that this will was not Allah's. In this scenario, Umar exonerates himself from disobeying the prophet, but he argued that the will of the prophet was different from that of Allah.

First, we have already showed by Quranic verses that every believer is ordered to obey the messenger unconditionally and that obedience to the prophet is obedience to Allah. The verses also show that decisions made by the prophet cannot be overruled (Quran 33:36)! And finally, disobedience to the prophet is also desobedience to Allah, which makes the person an unbeliever and his goods of no effect. Umar not only prevented the prophet from writing his will but he accused him of being delusional, or to be less aggressive, some say Umar accused him of not knowing what he was saying because he was overwhelmed with great pain. He therefore disobeyed him and Allah and disrespected him as well. According to the Quran, Umar strayed off the path of a believer:

Quran 47:33
O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not make your deeds of no effect.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

How could his sinful act be in the interest of Islam?? The prophet, the bearer of the message and the most knowledgeable, is the only one to know what the interests of the nation are and how to protect it, not Umar! Muhammad was the prophet and not Umar!! Muhammad received the revelation and not Umar! How could any one know what can protect the Ummah from straying off the right path better than the prophet who has made and guided this Ummah?? Who knows the enemies of this Ummah better than its master??? It is obvious that either Umar was ignorant of the verses of the Quran and of the true virtues of the prophet or his blindness overcame him.

Second, Umar says that the will of the prophet was not Allah's will. In other words, the prophet's will was to make Ali his true successor, but this was not the will of Allah. Is it possible for the prophet to desire a will different from that of Allah, the One who chose him over all livings to carry His message to mankind? Is this possible? Is this how he supports his evil action?? Since when during the prophethood of Muhammad, He has uttered a word, make a deed or made a decision from his own desire??? The prophet would not decide on something without the consent of Allah. Every deed, saying or action is acted upon after revelation from Allah. As the Quran puts it:

Quran 53:2-4
Your Companion is neither astray nor being misled. Nor does he (prophet) speak out of his desire. (What he says) is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him, the Lord of Strength; so he attained completion.
مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى - وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى - إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى

What does the request of the prophet remind you of? He said: "Come near let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray." What hadith has the prophet unceasingly repeated to his companions to save them from ever straying off the right path?? Is it not hadith al-Thaqalyn??

The messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "I am leaving for you two precious and weighty Symbols that if you adhere to BOTH of them you shall not go astray after me. They are, the Book of Allah, and my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The Merciful has informed me that These two shall not separate from each other till they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
حدثنا علي بن المنذر الكوفي أخبرنا محمد بن فضيل أخبرنا الأعمش عن عطيه عن أبي سعيد والأعمش عن حبيب ابن أبي ثابت عن زيد بن ارقم قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:
"اني تارك فيكم ما إن تمسكتم به لن تضلوا بعدي؛ أحدهما أعظم من الآخر؛ كتاب الله حبل ممدود من السماء الى الأرض وعترتي أهل بيتي ولن يتفرقا حتى يردا على الحوض فانظروا كيف تخلفوني فيهما". هذا حديث حسن غريب.‏

Umar knew this very well and his will was to remove Ahlul Bayt from this picture, which is why he said: "Allah's Book is sufficient for us."

Some (very fierce haters of the Shia'a) say that what the prophet wanted to write is clear and they refer to the following narration in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim, which they use to justify the caliphate of Abu Bakr:

The prophet told Aisha to call her father (Abu Bakr) and her brother so I can write a document. I fear that someone will hope and say: "I am more worthy of this" Allah and the believers will refuse such a saying. Abu Bakr is more worthy of it.
حدثنا عبيد الله بن سعيد حدثنا يزيد بن هارون أخبرنا إبراهيم بن سعد حدثنا صالح بن كيسان عن الزهري عن عروة عن عائشة قالت قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في مرضه (ادعي لي أبا بكر وأخاك حتى اكتب كتابا فإني أخاف أن يتمنى متمن ويقول قائل أنا أولى ويأبى الله والمؤمنون إلا أبا بكر )

Since they believe that everything in Sahih Muslim and Bukhari is authentic, they therefore claim that this hadith is authentic and identifies what the prophet wanted to write.

Boy, there are many problems with this claim:

  1. First, most of the Sunni scholars agree that the prophet never hinted and shared a Hadith stating that Abu Bakr was his successor. Please refer to the following link for more details.

  2. Second, if the prophet desired to make Abu Bakr the next caliph, how could he not find the time to do this in public, in front of everyone, so that no one who witnessed it can argue against it and reject it. Will this not create more doubt if the prophet does it in private??

  3. Third, why did not the prophet make Abu Bakr the caliph of the Muslims at Ghadeer Khum, in front of the 100,000 witnesses? Was this not the perfect opportunity??

  4. Fourth, the prophet had already made Ali his successor at Ghadeer Ghadeer, and of course they will deny that. In fact, they have denied it!

  5. Fifth, if their narration is true, then why did not Abu Bakr use it to justify his caliphate when Ahlul Bayt and their followers rejected it??? Why did he not use it to justify his right to the caliphate in al-Saqifa??

  6. Sixth, the fact that Ahlul Bayt rejected the caliphate of Abu Bakr means that Abu Bakr did something wrong, because Ahlul bayt are the second of the Thaqalayns and do not differ from the Quran and Sunnah of the prophet.

  7. Seventh, what are these virtues that Abu Bakr has so that the prophet can succeed him?? Is he the image of the prophet? Is he the best of people after the prophet?? Is he better than Ahlul Bayt?? Did he inherit the knowledge of the prophet?? Is the most knowledgeable of all after the prophet?? Is he the bravest of all?? Is he the purest of all?? Is he the male first Muslim after the prophet?? Is he the most pious and truthful?? Is he the most obedient to Allah and his prophet? The fact is he has nothing to all of these!!!! Read the chapter of Ahlul Bayt and find out for yourself what they are worth. It is enough to remind you of Hadith al-Thaqalayn. All the companions envied Ali and Ahlul Bayt for their unmatched virtues, and not Abu Bakr.

  8. Eigth, If it was the prophet's desire to make Abu Bakr his successor, why did he order him to join the army of Usama??? Did he forget he wanted to make him his successor???

  9. Where in this Hadith does it talk about Khilafat??

  10. Ninth, Look at the narrators of this Hadith: al-Zuhri and Urwa ibn Zubayr. U'urwa ibn Zubayr ibn A'awam is the son of the companion al-Zubayr, and he was born during the caliphate of Umar. He is known to have hated Imam Ali and he fought against him in the battle of the Camel, just like his father! Did not the prophet say that whoever hates Ali is a hypocrite and whoever loves Ali is a believer. Therefore, this Urwa, whom is considered a good man by the Sunni (and blindly accept his Hadith without scrutiny) was a hypocrite because of his hatred for Ali.

    ibn Abdul Hadid reported in Sharh Nahjul Balagha that al-Zuhri and Urwa were together and insulted Imam Ali. The news reached al-Hussein so he came to them...

    وكان الزهري من المنحرفين عنه، وروى جرير بن عبدالحميد عن محمد بن شيبة قال: شهدت مسجد المدينة، فإذا الزهري وعروة ابن الزبيرجالسان يذكران علياً فنالا منه. فبلغ ذلك علي بن الحسين فجاء حتى وقف عليهما فقال: أما أنت يا عروة، فإن أبي حاكم أباك إلى الله فحكم لأبي على أبيك، وأما أنت يا زهري، فلو كنت بمكة لأريتُك كير أبيك»
    وروى عاصم بن أبي عامر البجلي، عن يحيى بن عروة، قال: كان أبي إذا ذكر علياً نال منه

    How can you rely on a narration transmitted by Urwa and al-Zuhri, especially when it concerns the caliphate?? Are these the kind of narrations you use to refute people's claim?? Let's not forget that Aishah hated Ali as well! The 2 Sihah are full of narrations from unreliable people, hypocrites, haters of Ahlul Bayt. Yet, they claim everything in it is Saheeh.

Look, a Hadith has to make sense. It has to be coherent with other Hadith and with the Quran. I also has be coherent with History. You can't just pick one Hadith from any book and claim it is Saheeh when it makes no sense. You can't just chose a Hadith from the 2 Sihah and claim it is authentic. Tha fact this book is full of fabrications and Hadith tempered with. Hadith taken from liars, from enemies of Ahlul Bayt, from hypocrites! So when you read, use some logic an little reasoning.

In fact, the same people who made the above claim, also love Mua'awiya!!! The same Mua'awiya who fought Ali and rejected his caliphate. The same Mu'awiya who started the tradition of insulting Ali on the Pulpits of the Mosques for 90 years!!! In fact, I don't understand how someone can love the prophet, his Ahlul bayt and their enemies at the time! I don't get it, just as I don't get the trinity: God is the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, but all in one! If people think this trinity makes sense in the Christian world, then we have Muslims that find it logic to love Allah, the prophet, his Ahlul bayt and their enemies. LUDICROUS!

In the end, you can believe all you want. Allah gave you that choice, but he also gave you a brain for logical reasonning and critical thinking. I find it interesting and desappointing that when it comes to topics like these (where Abu Bakr and Umar are involved), many Muslims spend their time refuting the reasoning of the Shia'a rather than focusing on the essence of the story. Forget about what the Shia'a say and don't let it confuse you or provoque you. Just use your brain and decide for yourself what makes sense. Stop using fabrications to justify your position! Use commonsense as well.

Could the prophet not have left a will?

Quran 2:180
Bequest is prescribed for you when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, according to usage, a duty (incumbent) upon those who guard (against evil).
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالأقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ

Some companions came to Aisha and told her that the prophet made a will regarding Ali. But she refuted the news because she claimed that the prophet passed away on her chest and that he never made any will regarding Ali.

Narrated Al-Aswad: In the presence of 'Aisha some people mentioned that the Prophet had appointed 'Ali by will as his successor. 'Aisha said, "When did he appoint him by will? Verily when he died he was resting against my chest (or said: in my lap) and he asked for a wash-basin and then collapsed while in that state, and I could not even perceive that he had died, so when did he appoint him by will?"
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 51, Number 4, Book: Wasaayaa; Page 576, #2741 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Muslim, Book 013, Number 4013, Book: al-Wasiya; Page 640, #(1636)-19 (Arabic version)

Another narration reports that the prophet did not make any will at all.

Narrated Talha bin Musarrif: I asked 'Abdullah bin Abu Aufa "Did the Prophet make a will?" He replied, "No," I asked him, "How is it then that the making of a will has been enjoined on people, (or that they are ordered to make a will)?" He replied, "The Prophet bequeathed Allah's Book (i.e. Quran)."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 51, Number 3, Book: Wasaayaa; Page 576, #2740 (Arabic version)

Yet, the next narration reports that the prophet was resting on Ali's chest before his last breath.

Ali said: "In the last moments of his life, the Messenger of Allah said: 'Call me my brother.' So I approached him. He asked me to get nearer to him and I got quite close to him. He leaned on me and continued resting on my chest and speaking to me till his spittle fell on me and the Messenger of Allah breathed his last."
Reference:
     al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, part 2, p51, in the Chapter entitled "The Prophet demised in Ali's lap"
     Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p392

Another narration that supports this fact is the following:

Imam Ali said: "The Messenger of Allah at that time (before his last breath) taught me one thousand chapters (Bab) of knowledge, every one of which opened for me one thousand other chapters."
Reference:
     Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p392
     Hilyatul Awliyaa, by al-Hafidh Abu Nu'aym
     Nuskhatah, by Abu Ahmad al-Faradi

 
Pretexts to justify the actions of Umar and his followers
Many Muslims get so quickly offended when someone criticizes and points out the misdeeds of the companions. Instead of admitting the truth and their committed mistakes, their first reaction is to blindly justify their misdeeds with ridiculous pretexts. Are the companions infallible? Of course not! Are the companions saints? Of course not. They are ordinary people like us who were blessed to see and hear the prophet. Some of them believed and remained loyal to him until they died, others pretended to believe (hypocrites), and others believed but renegaded after his demise. The companions of Moses reverted to their disbelief when he left them for 40 nights, Juda, the twelth disciple of Jesus, betrayed his master. The prophet foretold that many of his companions will renagade, many will cut the throats of one another, and many will introduce innovations into religion.

History testified to these predictions and have been discussed in the chapter dealing with the companions. History testified how they cut the throats of one another in the battle of the Camel, Nahrawan, Siffin and at Karbala'. History testified how Abu Bakr fought all the Muslims who refused to pay the zakat to him and called them Ahlul Ridda. So take a breath and realize that the companions are humans like you, they make mistakes and many committed atrocities in the name of Allah! So stop coming up with ridiculous excuses to defend them even when they err!

In the room there were two groups: the group that clearly heard the request of the prophet and wanted to obey him and allow him to write the document, and the group led by Umar, that repeated what Umar said and objected to the demand of the prophet. The opposing group pretented not to understand what the prophet was saying and accused him of delirium or talking nonsense (read the narrations again before accusing me of making this up). The opposing group caused the loud and disrespectful dispute, which they are not allowed to do in the presence of the prophet. Their irresponsable and ill-mannered behavious angered the prophet and expelled them and made them understand that his state was better than what they accused him of. Clearly, the two groups groups can't be both right. Obedience is the keyword here. Unconditional obedience does not allow excuses for those who fail to obey! This is commonsense. The fact is that in this event, the companions led by Umar erred and they erred big time! You would assume that by that time, they would have learned not to raise their voices and dispute in the presence of the prophet, but they have not! Umar and Abu Bakr have made that mistake before, and here again, Umar causes it! They disrespected the prophet and disobeyed his order. At the end, they prevented him from writing his will and expelled them from the room! They have caused a great disaster and a heavy loss, as ibn Abbas narrated.

The following are some of the ridiculous pretexts they used based on their own point of views to justify the actions of Umar in the calamity of Thursday. All of this so they can preserve his so-called honor or diginity. As if it was not enough of a great sin to treat the prophet of delirious or talk disrespectfully to his wowen, when all he wanted was save his nation for the last time from straying off.

  1. They argue that the prophet wanted to test the companions instead of actually writing what he intended. The prophet had more than 23 years to test his nation. He is not going to do so when he is nearing his demise. The proof of that is that the prophet was so desappointed of their reactions that he angrily expelled the companions from the house (probably the opposition group). If those who opposed were right, the prophet would not have expelled the companions. He would have shown his appreciation. But they strayed by desobeing the order of the prophet, as they did when the prophet ordered them to join the army of Usama ibn Zayd. What about the fact that ibn Abbas description of this incident as a catastrophe, a calamity, with tears pouring out strongly!!! Is this not an indication that this is was no test and that Umar and his followers did an evil thing, while the prophet was nearing his demise? What a great way to bid farewell to the prophet!!! It is a disgrace that such a man (Umar) became the caliph of the Muslims!!!!

  2. They argue that the intention of Umar was to relieve the prophet from the burden of writing since he was seriously ill:
    Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain...
    فقال ‏ ‏عمر ‏ ‏إن رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏قد غلب عليه الوجع...

    First of all, any companions capable of writing could have done the writing himself. Umar could have taken this writing task if he really wanted to help! But he did not. He just rejected the entire idea of having the document written! The prophet knew best about his situation. He knew well that he could dictate what he wanted to be written.

    Is this situation any worse than the burden the prophet had to carry for 23 years to spread the message of Allah, through rejection, bloody wars, threats, stoning and more?? Was the carrying of a pen and the writing of that document any worse than these events?? This is just a pretext so they can defend their master Umar! The prophet responded to them:

    Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for.
    فقال دعوني فالذي أنا فيه خير مما تدعوني إليه.

    The companions were there to listen, learn and obey, and not to prevent him from what he intented to do for them! I remind the reader of the following verse:

    Quran 33:36
    It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.
    وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

    If Umar cared so much about the prophet's state, then what is the purpose of the remaining of his saying:

    The Book of Allah is sufficient for us.
    وعندكم القرآن حسبنا كتاب الله.

    Is he saying that whatever the prophet wanted to say is in the Quran?? Did the Angel reveal this to him?? How did he know that??? Did he read the mind of the prophet?? Umar knew well what the prophet intended to write. Letting the prophet write this document would have destroyed his evil plot!!! After the demise of the prophet, Umar made sure to destroy and discourage the narration of the Sunnah of the prophet during his reign, as Abu Bakr did during his reign as well.

  3. They argue that Umar thought that it was wiser not to bring the ink-pot and the paper to the prophet. Who is wiser, Umar or the prophet? Who is the messenger of Allah and the guided and the most knowledgeable? Umar or the prophet? Hasn't the Quran made it clear that we must unconditionally obey the messenger of the Allah??
    Quran 3:31-32
    Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful - Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers.
    قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

  4. They argue that Umar was afraid that the prophet would write something that would be impossible to follow and implement, and therefore abandoning it would be sinful and require punishment from Allah. So Umar prevented the prophet from this writing to save the companions from such punishment. It is amazing how scholars have reached such pretexts. As if they could place themselves in the brain of Umar and think his thoughts. Are they implying that the prophet is not wise and intelligent enough to make such assessment? Is he not compassionate enough? Would the prophet order something that his nation could not carry out and therefore caused them to err? These scholars would say anything to exonerate Umar.

  5. They argue that Umar "Umar feared the hypocrites might cast doubts about the authenticity of such writing, since it would be written during the Prophet's sickness, and that it would be a cause for dissension." Hasn't the prophet said: "Bring me a shoulder blade and ink-pot (or tablet and inkpot), so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray." If this argument was true (Umar's fear...), don't you think the prophet would have been aware of this problem?? How can such statement be the source of dissension? By definition, the hypocrites are pretenders! they present themselves as believers, while their hearts cast doubts about their beliefs. The statement of the prophet was meant to protect the believers from straying. The hypocrites are already on the wrong path. So why does it matter that the hypocrites cast doubts about the authenticity of the writing?? Are they not already casting doubts about the prophethood and mission of Muhammad???

  6. Umar said: "we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us." They argue that this statement is true based on the following verses:
    Quran 6:38
    ...We have not neglected anything in the Book, then to their Lord shall they be gathered.
    ...مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ

    Quran 5:3
    ...This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion;
    ...الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا

    Yes, the Quran is complete and no one has argued otherwise. But does it detail all the prayers, the Adhan and Iqamat, the Hajj, etc?? Of course not. It is complete because it contains everything Allah has revealed. It contains all the Laws, but not the details, as this is left for Sunnah to elaborate on. So it is not enough to protect us from misguidance and discension. Are we not misguided and disunited today??? How many Islamic sects are there? Don't they all differ in the matter of Jurisprudence??? Is this not a sign of discension and disunity? Is this not a sign of a shattered nation?? Did not the prophet foretell that we will follow the ways of those nations who were before us (the Jews and the Christians), span by span and cubit by cubit (i.e., inch by inch) so much so that even if they entered a hole of a mastigure, we would follow them.

    It is obvious that the Quran is not sufficient for us. All scholars differ in their interpretations of the Quranic verses, even in the presence of the Sunnah. What would have happened if the Sunnah was completely obliterated??? Would we not be in a worse situation?? So how can we be guided??? They differ about who the members of Ahlul bayt are, they differ on how the Wudu' was performed, they differ on whether the Muta'a was obrogated or not, they differ on many things! That is because the Sunnah was obliterated. It is the Sunnah that clarifies the verses of the Quran. There is a Sunnah so that we can understand the Quran.

    So clearly, we need someone who has the knowledge to interprete it for us, during the lifetime of the prophet and after his demise, so that the correct interepretation does not get lost and future generations benefit from it. The insufficiency of the Quran alone is exactly why the prophet left us the Thaqalayn: the Quran and Ahlul Bayt.

    The prophet was the spoken Quran, the only one who could explain its content:

    Quran 16:44
    With clear arguments and scriptures; and We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to men what has been revealed to them, and that haply they may reflect.
    بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

    Quran 16:64
    And We have not revealed to you the Book except that you may make clear to them that about which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.
    وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

    Quran 2:151
    Even as We have sent among you a Messenger from among you who recites to you Our communications and purifies you and teaches you the Book and the wisdom and teaches you that which you did not know.
    كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ

    Also it is this same Quran that ordered us to take from the prophet what he gave us and avoid what he forbade us:

    Quran 59:7
    ...and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back,...
    ...وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا ...

    This statement of Umar is clearly false since the prophet commanded us to hold fast to the Quran and his progeny in order no to go astray. His progeny is the spoken Quran, after him. They are the authentic interpretors, as they have inherited the knowledge of the prophet.

  7. In some of the narrations from al-Bukhari's Sahih, the word Ahjara was translated into delirious. Please go back to the second section. Yet, some argue that the word Ahjara does not mean something that serious as being delusional or hallucinating, in this context. In fact, they used a lighter definition, just like they used the wrong definition for the word Mawla in the context Hadith Ghadeer. Let's assume that the companions meant by Ahajar something like what is he saying, his words are not clear, and so on, and if the prophet understood that meaning, then why would the prophet tell them:
    Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for
    دعوني فالذي أنا فيه خير

    Wouldn't it be unjust of him to be angry at them if they could not understand what he was saying? Or did they understand what he was saying and they wanted to find an excuse to prevent the writing of this document in order not to spoil their plot??

    Moreover, did not part of the companions understand what the prophet was saying??? Did he not tell them to bring something so he can write the document?? So which part of this warranted their ill-mannered reaction?? The fact that a group of the companions and the women in the house understood what the prophet was saying suggests that the reaction of the opposing group was deliberate and meant to prevent the prophet from writing this document. They succeeded.

    Finally, the fact that the many of the companions and the women understood what the prophet said and insisted that the prophet writes this document means that the prophet was neither in a state of unconsciousness, nor delirious nor talking nonsense, especially that Ahlul bayt did not oppose what the prophet willed! Look at the following narration from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

    ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سليمان بن أبي مسلم ‏ ‏خال ‏ ‏ابن أبي نجيح ‏ ‏سمع ‏ ‏سعيد بن جبير ‏ ‏يقول قال ‏ ‏ابن عباس " يوم الخميس وما يوم الخميس ثم بكى حتى بل دمعه ‏ ‏وقال ‏ ‏مرة دموعه ‏ ‏الحصى قلنا يا ‏ ‏أبا العباس ‏ ‏وما يوم الخميس قال اشتد برسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏وجعه فقال ‏ ‏ائتوني أكتب لكم كتابا لا تضلوا بعده أبدا فتنازعوا ولا ينبغي عند نبي تنازع فقالوا ما شأنه ‏ ‏أهجر ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏يعني هذى ‏ ‏استفهموه فذهبوا يعيدون عليه فقال دعوني فالذي أنا فيه خير مما تدعوني إليه وأمر بثلاث ‏ ‏وقال ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏مرة أوصى بثلاث ‏ ‏قال أخرجوا المشركين من ‏ ‏جزيرة العرب ‏ ‏وأجيزوا ‏ ‏الوفد بنحو ما كنت ‏ ‏أجيزهم ‏ وسكت ‏ ‏سعيد ‏ ‏عن الثالثة فلا أدري أسكت عنها عمدا وقال مرة أو نسيها ‏ ‏و قال ‏ ‏سفيان ‏ ‏مرة ‏ ‏وإما أن يكون تركها أو نسيها "

    The key point is how Sufyan defined the word Ahjara. He said it meant Hadha. Other words, to talk wildly, as in delirium!

  8. Arguing that the document was not Wajib because they prophet had already completed his revelation is ludicrous. By that time (few days before his demise), the prophet had already entirely delivered his divine Message. Therefore, what the prophet wanted to write is certainly something he had already iterated before and wanted to reiterate again. However, the fact that the prophet wanted to write this document marks its importance, especially when it is something that will keep the Ummah on the right path, and comes from the master of all prophets. Everything the prophets says or does is IMPORTANT!!! The obligation of the companions at this point was to obey him like true believers. Some did, while those led by Umar did not! Verse 59:7 clearly states to accept whatever the Messenger gives us, accept it and keep back whatever he forbids us. The prophet wanted to write a document to save us from straying and all they had to do is take accept that!

  9. Some would argue that the fact that the prophet did not write the document means that it was not so important or was not needed after all. Could not the prophet have written this document after he expelled the companions?? Could he not have asked his purified and loyal Ahlul Bayt to do so for him?? Of course he could have. But he did not because he knew the bad companions would have rejected it! They would have said something like, it is a lie or the prophet was so sick and in pain that he did not know what he was saying or we were not there to see him say it or write it!!! They were good with excuses! They would turn the prophet into someone who writes and says things from desire and who could err the people he guided! Did not Abu Bakr and Umar reject the argument of Ahul Bayt when they defended their right to the caliphate or their right ownership of Fadak or their right of their inheritance??? Did not the bad companions ignore the Hadith of the prophet and burn them and stopped its narrations? Did not some of companions ignore Hadith al-Thaqalayn after all??? Did they not fight Ali in three 3 battles???? Then what would prevent them from rejecting the document he could have written after expelling them???

  10. Finally, they argue that Umar did not understand the implication of the prophet's request. If that was truly the case, than the wise prophet would have been aware of it and would have corrected the misunderstanding of Umar. But it was not the case. Instead, the prophet got very angry and desappointed and expelled them from the room. This is a clear indication that Umar understood well the implication of the request of the prophet and his intention was to prevent the writing of the prophet.
There are many other ridiculous excuses, just so they can exhonorate Umar and his followers, and make the prophet look the one who does not know what he is doing!!! For instance, they say that the fact that the prophet ended up not writing that document proves that Umar's position was right. I just don't know what to say anymore here. Their justifications become more and more ludicrous. Is this what happens when you become blind and all you want is defend the wrongdoer to the detriment of the prophet's diginity and honor and status?? Instead of focusing on what went wrong in the room, they focus on defending the ill-mannered acts of Umar and his followers!

The reason the prophet ended up not writing the document is because of their loud dispute and desagreement, of their disrespect and animosity, of their accusations!!! We have strayed indeed because that document was not written. Get it?? Because of that disaster and the greed and worldly desires of some companions and the Umayyads and Abbasids, I have to sit here, spend lots of time to make things clear to you and to wake you up from the ignorance-coma that these people put you in!

The least impact I expect this paper to have on you, the reader, is a little motivation to get up and start your own investigation, if you are really interested in Islam. Otherwise, the same misconceptions and lies will continue to be passed on from generation to generation, as it has been happening for 1431 years! Your duty and obligation as a Muslim is discover whether the religion you have inherited from your parents and ancestors is the correct one.

Abu Bakr on his deathbed
al-Tabari reported in his Tarikh that before dying, Abu Bakr got bery sick also. He formed an elite of companions to witness the writing of his will and assigned Uthman to write it for him. As he was dictating to Uthman what to write, Abu Bakr fainted. Then Uthman kept writing: "I appoint Umar my successor..."...
حدثني عثمان بن يحيى عن عثمان القرقساني قال حدثنا سفيان بن عيينة عن إسماعيل عن قيس قال رأيت عمر بن الخطاب وهو يجلس والناس معه وبيده جريدة وهو يقول أيها الناس اسمعوا وأطيعوا قول خليفة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إنه يقول إني لم آلكم نصحا قال ومعه مولى لأبي بكر يقال له شديد معه الصحيفة التي فيها استخلاف عمر
قال أبو جعفر وقال الواقدي حدثني إبراهيم بن أبي النضر عن محمد بن إبراهيم بن الحارث قال دعا أبو بكر عثمان خاليا فقال اكتب بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم هذا ما عهد أبو بكر بن أبي قحافة إلى المسلمين أما بعد قال ثم أغمي عليه فذهب عنه فكتب عثمان أما بعد فإني قد استخلفت عليكم عمر بن الخطاب ولم آلكم خيرا منه ثم أفاق أبو بكر فقال اقرأ علي فقرأ عليه فكبر أبو بكر وقال أراك خفت أن يختلف الناس إن افتلتت نفسي في غشيتي قال نعم قال جزاك الله خيرا عن الإسلام وأهله وأقرها أبو بكر رضي الله عنه من هذا الموضع
حدثنا يونس بن عبدالأعلى قال حدثنا يحيى بن عبدالله بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث بن سعد قال حدثنا علوان عن صالح بن كيسان عن عمر بن عبدالرحمن بن عوف عن أبيه أنه دخل على أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله تعالى عنه في مرضه الذي توفي فيه فاصابه مهتما فقال له عبدالرحمن أصبحت والحمد لله بارئا فقال أبو بكر رضي الله عنه أتراه قال نعم قال إني وليت أمركم خيركم في نفسي

Abu Bakr was very sick as well, and desired to write his will. However, Umar did not have a problem interrupting Abu Bakr as he interrupted the prophet!!! Why? Do you now understand that the whole thing was a setup?? Umar had an issue with the prophet writing a document more important than Abu Bakr's but did not have a problem with Abu Bakr's writing of his will. It becomes quite clear now that Umar's opposition was planned. He did not want the prophet to write this document because he knew darn well what the prophet was about to write. He was going to reiterate, and this time in writing, that Ali was his successor. But Umar had a big problem with that because he wanted that position so badly. So he Abu Bakr and Umar usurped it from its rightful owner!

The prophet officially made Ali his successor at Ghadeer Khum. Please read the chapter of the caliphate to understand that. Let me present to you what Ali said on the day of al-Shura:

Abu Tufayl Ammer ibn Wathila narrated: "I was standing by the door the day of the Shura and the voices got louder among the six nominated companions. I heard Ali say: 'the people payed allegiance to Abu Bakr and by Allah I am more worthy and more entitled to this position than him. But I listened and obeyed lest the people become Kuffar and cut the throats of one another. Then the people payed allegiance to Umar and by Allah I am more worthy and more entitled to this position than him. But I listened and obeyed lest the people become Kuffar and cut the throats of one another. And now you want to pay allegiance to Uthman....' and started to remind people of this virtues..."
عن زافر عن رجل عن الحارث بن محمد عن أبي الطفيل عامر بن واثلة قال: كنت على الباب يوم الشورى، فارتفعت الأصوات بينهم فسمعت عليا يقول: بايع الناس لأبي بكر وأنا والله أولى بالأمر منه، وأحق به منه، فسمعت وأطعت مخافة أن يرجع الناس كفارا يضرب بعضهم رقاب بعض بالسيف، ثم بايع الناس عمر وأنا والله أولى بالأمر منه وأحق به منه فسمعت وأطعت مخافة أن يرجع الناس كفارا يضرب بعضهم رقاب بعض بالسيف، ثم أنتم تريدون أن تبايعوا عثمان إذا أسمع وأطيع، إن عمر جعلني في خمسة نفر أنا سادسهم لا يعرف لي فضلا عليهم في الصلاح ولا يعرفونه لي كلنا فيه شرع سواء وايم الله لو أشاء أن أتكلم ثم لا يستطيع عربيهم ولا عجميهم ولا المعاهد منهم ولا المشرك رد خصلة منها لفعلت، ثم قال: نشدتكم بالله أيها النفر جميعا أفيكم أحد آخى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم غيري؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، ثم قال: نشدتكم الله أيها النفر جميعا أفيكم أحد له عم مثل عمي حمزة أسد الله وأسد رسوله وسيد الشهداء؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، ثم قال: أفيكم أحد له أخ مثل أخي جعفر ذي الجناحين الموشى بالجوهر يطير بهما في الجنة حيث شاء؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: فهل أحد له سبط مثل سبطي الحسن والحسين سيدي شباب أهل الجنة؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد له زوجة مثل زوجتي فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم؟ قالوا: اللهم لا. قال: أفيكم أحد كان أقتل لمشركي قريش عند كل شديدة تنزل برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مني؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد كان أعظم غنى عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين اضطجعت على فراشه ووقيته بنفسي وبذلت له مهجة دمي؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد كان يأخذ الخمس غيري وغير فاطمة؟ قال: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد كان له سهم في الحاضر وسهم في الغائب غيري؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أكان أحد مطهرا في كتاب الله غيري حين سد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أبواب المهاجرين وفتح بابي فقام إليه عماه حمزة والعباس فقالا: يا رسول الله سددت أبوابنا وفتحت باب علي، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما أنا فتحت بابه ولا سددت أبوابكم بل الله فتح بابه وسد أبوابكم؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد تمم الله نوره من السماء غيري حين قال: { وآت ذا القربى حقه} قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد ناجاه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم اثنى عشرة مرة غيري حين قال الله تعالى: { يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا ناجيتم الرسول فقدموا بين يدي نجواكم صدقة} قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد تولى غمض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم غيري؟ قالوا: اللهم لا، قال: أفيكم أحد آخر عهده برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين وضعه في حفرته غيري؟ قالوا: اللهم لا.

Umar on his deathbed
Umar was stabbed and got very sick. Yet, no one stopped him from writing his instructions for selecting his successor. No one said that he was on great pain or was unconscious or was talking nonsense. They all executed his instructions to the letter.

Yet, they did not let the prophet write that document! It because of them that we are shattered and have become divided like the Christians and the Jews, as the prophet foretold!