Umna A'aisha bint Abi Bakr
This chapter is very controversial mainly because umna Aisha is the wife of the beloved prophet of Allah. It is of course a great privilege to be the wife of the prophet but it comes with great responsibilities that must be assumed in order to preserve this privilege and the dignity of the prophet.

  1. The wives of prophet Muhammad are the Mothers of the believers and therefore cannot remarry after the demise of the prophet.
    Quran 33:6
    The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, and his wives are (as) their mothers; and the possessors of relationship have the better claim in the ordinance of Allah to inheritance, one with respect to another, than (other) believers, and (than) those who have fled (their homes), except that you do some good to your friends; this is written in the Book.
    النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ وَأُوْلُو الْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ إِلَّا أَن تَفْعَلُوا إِلَى أَوْلِيَائِكُم مَّعْرُوفًا كَانَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَسْطُورًا

    Quran 33:53
    [Shakir 33:53] O you who believe! do not enter the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meal, not waiting for its cooking being finished-- but when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken the food, then disperse-- not seeking to listen to talk; surely this gives the Prophet trouble, but he forbears from you, and Allah does not forbear from the truth And when you ask of them any goods, ask of them from behind a curtain; this is purer for your hearts and (for) their hearts; and it does not behove you that you should give trouble to the Messenger of Allah, nor that you should marry his wives after him ever; surely this is grievous in the sight of Allah.
    يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِي النَّبِيَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاء حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَن تَنكِحُوا أَزْوَاجَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ أَبَدًا إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمًا {53}

  2. Because of their given title and because they are not like other women, the Mother of believers will receive double the normal punishment for commited indecencies on one hand, and on the other hand, they will be rewarded doubly for their good deeds:
    Quran 33:30-32
    [Shakir 33:30] O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly; and this IS easy to Allah.
    [Shakir 33:31] And whoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Messenger and does good, We will give to her her reward doubly, and We have prepared for her an honorable sustenance.
    [Shakir 33:32] O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.
    يَا نِسَاء النَّبِيِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا {30} وَمَن يَقْنُتْ مِنكُنَّ لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا نُّؤْتِهَا أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهَا رِزْقًا كَرِيمًا {31} يَا نِسَاء النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاء إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا {32}

    So they have a higher responsibility to promote good deeds and not to commit misdeeds.

  3. The indecencies commited by any mother of the believers do not affect the honor, dignity and purity of the prophet. In fact, the best examples are the wives of Noah and Lut:
    Quran 66:10
    Allah sets forth an example to those who disbelieve the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut: they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the fire with those who enter.
    ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا اِمْرَأَةَ نُوحٍ وَاِمْرَأَةَ لُوطٍ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَالِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَقِيلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدَّاخِلِينَ

    The status of both prophets were preserved even though their wives will enter hell. Allah did not reproach any of the two prophets or demoted their status. They remained the pure, faithful and obedient servants of Allah.

Would a mother of believers be preserving her privileges and her honor of being married to the seal of prophets, and also protect the dignity of her husband, when she commits serious misdeeds such as being responsible for the killing of thousands of innocent Muslims, or when she disrespects the prophet, or when she conspires against him, or when she lies to him? Would she a good example for the believers to follow? Would the believers be proud of having such a mother? Is such behavior expected from someone with such an honorable position? Of course not! Therefore, the most logical thing to expect from them is to uphold their honorable through utmost obedience to Allah and His prophet.

The books of History, hadith and exegesis show that umna Aisha commited lots of misdeeds not only towards the prophet but also his Ahlul Bayt. Her intense and threatening jealousy led her to slander the most beloved wife of the prophet, Khadija, and conspired against the prophet in several instances with the help of her co-wife Hafsa. Moreover, she opposed and fought Ahlul Bayt (a very sad incident!) in the battle of the Camel. She even raised her voice on the prophet and according to some reports, she prevented Imam Hassan from getting buried at the side of his grand-father. All of these have been reported in the books of the Sunnis and Shia Imami. Sad but true.

A'aisha is not the most beloved person of the prophet
The jealousy of A'aisha
Conspiracy of Aisha and Hafsa against the prophet
Other conspiracies against the prophet
Her harsh opposition to Uthman and repudiation of Ali's caliphate
The Battle of the Camel
Aisha's hatred towards Ali
Her disobedience to Allah and His prophet
Aisha prevents the burial of imam Hassan next to his grand-father, the prophet
Aisha grieved the prophet
Aisha followed the innovation of Uthman ibn Affan
Did imam Ali divorce Aisha from the prophet on the Day of the Camel?
Hadith al-Ifq
How non-Muslims slander the prophet based on his marriage with Aisha (RA) and Zeinab (RA)
 
A'aisha is not the most beloved person of the prophet
There is a misconception among the Sunnis that Aisha is the most beloved woman of the prophet and her father Abu Bakr is the most beloved man to the prophet. Such beliefs are based on narrations concocted by the enemies of Ahlul bayt. Logic is enough to repudiate such beliefs! The fact is that Khadija is the most beloved wife of the prophet, which is why Aisha was so intensely jealous of her, and Fatima is the prophet's most beloved woman. The unconditional loving and the following of Ahlul Bayt were made compulsory upon us. Allah endowed Ahlul Bayt with a myriad of unique virtues and elevated their status well beyond the status of any companion. It is therefore clear that Allah love them the most, after his beloved prophet. It automatically follows that the holy prophet also love them the most as well. Is it possible for the prophet to love Ahlul Bayt less than any companion or wife?? Moreover, after knowing the history of umna Aisha, you will come to understand that it is impossible for her to be the prophet's most beloved wife.

As for proof from the Sunnah, numerous traditions have been presented in the chapter Loving Ahlul Bayt and Most beloved people. You can also read about the virtues of Ahlul Bayt to understand how much love Allah has for them. It is enough to say that for Allah, Ahlul Bayt surpass any companion or wife of the prophet. So please read these chapters.

The jealousy of A'aisha
Aisha was a very jealous wife. Not only was she was jealous of umna Khadija (although she had already passed on), but of other co-wives as well. Her intense jealousy led her to impulsive reactions such ill-speaking about Kahadija and breaking cookware.

Many of the scholars have reported that Aisha used to be very jealous of the other wives of the prophet and mostly of Khadija, as the prophet used to mention her very often. Badriddeen al-A'aini reported in U'umadatul Qari the following:

Aysha used to be jealous of the other wives of the prophet, and mostly of Umna Khadija because of the prophet's excessive remembrance of her.
وكانت عائشة تغار من نساء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، ولكن تغار من خديجة أكثر، وذلك لكثرة ذكر رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، إياها.

al-Mubarakfuri in his Tohfatul Ahuzi reported that Aisha was jealous of Khadija for 2 reasons: the first one is because the prophet used to mention her very often and the second one because of Allah's gift to her (the palace in paradise):

كان لغيرة عائشة على خديجة أمران الأول كثرة ذكر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لها كما في الحديث السابق. والثانية هذه البشارة لأن اختصاص خديجة بهذه البشرى مشعر بمزيد محبة من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيها (ببيت من قصب)

Aisha herself confessed to this jealousy (al-Mubarakfuri in his Tohfatul Ahuzi):

ما حسدت أحداً ما حسدت خديجة

And her jealousy would have been worse if Khadija was alive, as reported by Badriddeen al-A'ayni in his U'imdatul Qari:

وأشارت عائشة بذلك إلى أن خديجة لو كانت حية في زمانها لكانت غيرتها منها أكثر وأشد

Narrated 'Aisha: I never felt so jealous of any woman as I did of Khadija, though she had died three years before the Prophet married me, and that was because I heard him mentioning her too often, and because his Lord had ordered him to give her the glad tidings that she would have a palace in Paradise, made of Qasab and because he used to slaughter a sheep and distribute its meat among her friends.
حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ مَا غِرْتُ عَلَى امْرَأَةٍ مَا غِرْتُ عَلَى خَدِيجَةَ وَلَقَدْ هَلَكَتْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَنِي بِثَلَاثِ سِنِينَ لِمَا كُنْتُ أَسْمَعُهُ يَذْكُرُهَا وَلَقَدْ أَمَرَهُ رَبُّهُ أَنْ يُبَشِّرَهَا بِبَيْتٍ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ قَصَبٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَيَذْبَحُ الشَّاةَ ثُمَّ يُهْدِي فِي خُلَّتِهَا مِنْهَا
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, #33, Book: Good manners; Page 1289, #6004 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, #164, Book: Manaqib al-Ansar; Page 799, #3816 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, #165, Book: Manaqib al-Ansar; Page 799, #3817 (Arabic version)

Narrated 'Aisha: I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadija though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadija. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadija in such a way) as if there is no woman on earth except Khadija," he would say, "Khadija was such-and-such, and from her I had children."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, #166, Book: Manaqib al-Ansar; Page 799, #3818 (Arabic version)

an old woman with a teethless mouth of red gums is how Aisha described Umna Khadija, whom Allah favored by sending her His blessing and offering her a palace in paradise and making her one of the four mistresses of all women in this world. Is this acceptable? It becomes clear that the prophet loved umna Khadija more than Umna Aisha. This is how Aisha spoke of the woman that Allah favored over all women in the world, and in front of the prophet!

Narrated Abu Huraira: Gabriel came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! This is Khadija coming to you with a dish having meat soup (or some food or drink). When she reaches you, greet her on behalf of her Lord (i.e. Allah) and on my behalf, and give her the glad tidings of having a Qasab palace in Paradise wherein there will be neither any noise nor any fatigue (trouble) . "

Narrated 'Aisha: Once Hala bint Khuwailid, Khadija's sister, asked the permission of the Prophet to enter. On that, the Prophet remembered the way Khadija used to ask permission, and that upset him. He said, "O Allah! Hala!" So I became jealous and said, "What makes you remember an old woman amongst the old women of Quraish, an old woman (with a teethless mouth) of red gums who died long ago, and in whose place Allah has given you somebody better than her?"

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ فُضَيْلٍ عَنْ عُمَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي زُرْعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ أَتَى جِبْرِيلُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَذِهِ خَدِيجَةُ قَدْ أَتَتْ مَعَهَا إِنَاءٌ فِيهِ إِدَامٌ أَوْ طَعَامٌ أَوْ شَرَابٌ فَإِذَا هِيَ أَتَتْكَ فَاقْرَأْ عَلَيْهَا السَّلَامَ مِنْ رَبِّهَا وَمِنِّي وَبَشِّرْهَا بِبَيْتٍ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ قَصَبٍ لَا صَخَبَ فِيهِ وَلَا نَصَبَ
وَقَالَ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ خَلِيلٍ أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُسْهِرٍ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ اسْتَأْذَنَتْ هَالَةُ بِنْتُ خُوَيْلِدٍ أُخْتُ خَدِيجَةَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَعَرَفَ اسْتِئْذَانَ خَدِيجَةَ فَارْتَاعَ لِذَلِكَ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ هَالَةَ قَالَتْ فَغِرْتُ فَقُلْتُ مَا تَذْكُرُ مِنْ عَجُوزٍ مِنْ عَجَائِزِ قُرَيْشٍ حَمْرَاءِ الشِّدْقَيْنِ هَلَكَتْ فِي الدَّهْرِ قَدْ أَبْدَلَكَ اللَّهُ خَيْرًا مِنْهَا
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, #168, Book: Manaqib al-Ansar; Page 800, #3820 (Arabic version)

A'isha reported that Hala b. Khuwailid (sister of Khadija) sought permission from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) to see him and he was reminded of Khadija's (manner of) asking leave to enter and (was overwhelmed) with emotions thereby and said: O Allah, it is Hala, daughter of Khuwailid, and I felt jealous and said: Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is long dead-while Allah has given you a better one in her stead?
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 031, Number 5976, Book: Kitab Fada'il al-Sahabah; Page 949, #(2437)-78 (Arabic version)

Another wowan umna Aisha was jealous of is umna Maria the coptic. Not only did the prophet have to deal with his tough and challenging mission, but he also had to deal with the grievances caused by Aisha. Umna Khadija dedicated her life to love, support and share the burden of the prophet, while Umna Aisha spent much of her time complaining and grieving the prophet because of her uncontrollable jealousy.

Aisha said: "I have never been as jealous of any woman as I have been of Mariya. That was because she had beautiful ringlets. She used to stay in the house of Haritha Ibn al-Numan. We frightened her and I became concerned. The Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF) sent her to a higher place and he would visit her there. That was very hard upon us, and then Allah blessed him with a boy through her and we shunned him".
أخبرنا محمد بن عمر حدثني موسى بن محمد بن عبد الرحمن بن حارثة بن النعمان عن أبيه عن عمرة عن عائشة قالت ما غرت على امرأة إلا دون ما غرت على مارية وذلك أنها كانت جميلة من النساء جعدة وأعجب بها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وكان أنزلها أول ما قدم بها في بيت لحارثة بن النعمان فكانت جارتنا فكان رسول الله عامة النهار والليل عندها حتى فرغنا لها فجزعت فحولها إلى (ص 213) العالية فكان يختلف إليها هناك فكان ذلك أشد علينا ثم رزق الله منها الولد وحرمنا منه
Reference:
     al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v8, p212
     al-Ansab al-Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, p339

Aisha's jealousy reached such a high level that she disrespected the prophet. What desire is she talking about? Sexual? Is this why the prophet married so many wives? So he can be sexually satisfied???? Has she forgotten that she was talking to the prophet of God whose only worry was to deliver His message???

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: I felt jealous of the women who offered themselves to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Then when Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, revealed this:" You may defer any one of them you wish, and take to yourself any you wish; and if you desire any you have set aside (no sin is chargeable to you)" (xxxiii. 51), I ('A'isha.) said: It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire.
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْبٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلَاءِ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ كُنْتُ أَغَارُ عَلَى اللَّاتِي وَهَبْنَ أَنْفُسَهُنَّ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَقُولُ وَتَهَبُ الْمَرْأَةُ نَفْسَهَا فَلَمَّا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تُرْجِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ مِنْهُنَّ وَتُؤْوِي إِلَيْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَمَنْ ابْتَغَيْتَ مِمَّنْ عَزَلْتَ >قَالَ قُلْتُ وَاللَّهِ مَا أَرَى رَبَّكَ إِلَّا يُسَارِعُ لَكَ فِي هَوَاكَ
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 008, #3453, Book: al-Nikah; Page 553, #(1464)-49 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Muslim, Book 008, #3454, Book: al-Nikah; Page 553, #(1464)-50 (Arabic version)

Aisha's jealous got out of control. Out of anger, she would break dishes or tear clothes. Once the Prophet was with her while Safiyya (another wife) sent to the Prophet a dish that he really loved. Because of her jealousy, she was enraged and destroyed the dish, together with the food in it:

Aisha said: "Safiyya, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), sent a dish she had made for him when he was with me. When I saw the maidservant, I trembled with rage and fury, and I took the bowl and hurled it away. The Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF) then looked at me; I saw the anger in his face and I said to him: 'I seek refuge from Allah's Apostle cursing me today.' The Prophet said: 'Undo it'. I said: 'What is its compensation, O Prophet of Allah?' He said: 'The food like her food, and a bowl like her bowl.'"
حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي حدثنا عبد الرحمن عن سفيان عن فليت حدثتني جسرة عن عائشة أنها قالت:
-ما رأيت صانعة طعام مثل صفية أهدت إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إناء فيه طعام فما ملكت نفسي أن كسرته فقلت يا رسول الله ما كفارته فقال: إناء كإناء وطعام كطعام.
Reference:
     Musnad, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p227 (المجلد السادس >> حديث السيدة عائشة رضي الله عنها)
     Sahih al-Nisa'i, v2, p148 (المجلد السابع. >> كتاب عشرة النساء >> باب الغيرة)
     Sunan Abu Dawud, vol 2, #3567 (الجزء الثاني >> -22- أول كتاب الإِجارة >> -91- باب فيمن أفسد شيئاً يغرم مثله)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, #152, Book: al-Nikaah; Page 1148, #5225 (Arabic version)

Is it not true that angering the prophet is also angering Allah? None of the other wives have treated the prophet as such and caused him so much grievance.

Aisha said: "I said to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) 'Enough for you about Safiyya is such and such.' The Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF) said to me: 'You have uttered words which, if they were mixed with the waters of the sea, would color it.'"
حدثنا محمد بن بشار، أخبرنا يحيى بن سعيد وعبد الرحمن قالا أخبرنا سفيان عن علي بن الأقمر عن أبي حذيفة، وكان من أصحاب عبد اللّه بن مسعود، عن عائشة قالت:
"حكيت للنبي صلى اللّه عليه وسلم رجلا فقال: مايسرني أني حكيت رجلا وان لي كذا وكذا. قالت فقلت يا رسول، إن صفية امرأة وقالت بيدها هكذا كأنها تعني قصيرة، فقال: لقد مزجت بكلمة لو مزج بها ماء البحر لمزج".
Reference:
     Sunan al-Tirmidhi, v4, #2624 (المجلد الرابع >> أبواب صفة القيامة >> 19- باب)

One night, the prophet woke up in the middle of the night and got out of the house. She suspected his behaviour, so she got up and followed him in the dark. She thought the prophet would deal unjustly with her!

Muhammad b. Qais said (to the people): Should I not narrate to you (a hadith of the Holy Prophet) on my authority and on the authority of my mother? We thought that he meant the mother who had given him birth. He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. She said: When it was my turn for Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) to spend the night with me, he turned his side, put on his mantle and took off his shoes and placed them near his feet, and spread the corner of his shawl on his bed and then lay down till he thought that I had gone to sleep. He took hold of his mantle slowly and put on the shoes slowly, and opened the door and went out and then closed it lightly. I covered my head, put on my veil and tightened my waist wrapper, and then went out following his steps till he reached Baqi'. He stood there and he stood for a long time. He then lifted his hands three times, and then returned and I also returned. He hastened his steps and I also hastened my steps. He ran and I too ran. He came (to the house) and I also came (to the house). I, however, preceded him and I entered (the house), and as I lay down in the bed, he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. He struck me on the chest which caused me pain, and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you? She said: Whatsoever the people conceal, Allah will know it. He said: Gabriel came to me when you saw me. He called me and he concealed it from you. I responded to his call, but I too concealed it from you (for he did not come to you), as you were not fully dressed. I thought that you had gone to sleep, and I did not like to awaken you, fearing that you may be frightened. He (Gabriel) said: Your Lord has commanded you to go to the inhabitants of Baqi' (to those lying in the graves) and beg pardon for them. I said: Messenger of Allah, how should I pray for them (How should I beg forgiveness for them)? He said: Say, Peace be upon the inhabitants of this city (graveyard) from among the Believers and the Muslims, and may Allah have mercy on those who have gone ahead of us, and those who come later on, and we shall, God willing, join you.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 004, #2127, Book: al-Jana'iz; Page 348, #(974)-103 (Arabic version)

These are some of the stories showing how Aisha grieved the prophet. This is of course inappropriate, especially, when the husband is the prophet of God. As you will see below, there are more similar stories which grieved the prophet.

Conspiracy of Aisha and Hafsa against the prophet
I quote the following commentary as a summary of the incident, which is confirmed by several narrations:
"The Holy Prophet used to drink a glass of honey-syrup whenever he visited the apartment of Zaynab. A-isha and Hafsa became resentful, and A-isha devised a plot. Knowing the Holy Prophet's dislike of unpleasant smells she held her nose when he came to her apartment after drinking a glass of honey-syrup prepared by Zaynab, and accused him of having eaten the produce of a very ill-smelling tree. When she accused him of having eaten maghafir (a nauseating herb) the Holy Prophet said that he had taken only honey. She said: "The bees had fed on maghafir." When he visited Hafsa she also acted just like A-isha. Displeased with their obnoxious behaviour the Holy Prophet vowed not to eat honey any more. The Holy Prophet's mind was sorely distressed by the obnoxious behaviour of A-isha and Hafsa and he renounced the society of his wives for one month."

Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet used to stay (for a period) in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh (one of the wives of the Prophet ) and he used to drink honey in her house. Hafsa and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us, she would say, "I smell in you the bad smell of Maghafir (a bad smelling raisin). Have you eaten Maghafir?" When he entered upon one of us, she said that to him. He replied (to her), "No, but I have drunk honey in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink it again." Then the following verse was revealed: 'O Prophet ! Why do you ban (for you) that which Allah has made lawful for you?. ..(up to) If you two (wives of the Prophet turn in repentance to Allah.' (66.1-4) The two were 'Aisha and Hafsa And also the Statement of Allah: 'And (Remember) when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his wives!' (66.3) i.e., his saying, "But I have drunk honey." Hisham said: It also meant his saying, "I will not drink anymore, and I have taken an oath, so do not inform anybody of that'
حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ حَدَّثَنَا الْحَجَّاجُ عَنْ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ قَالَ زَعَمَ عَطَاءٌ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عُبَيْدَ بْنَ عُمَيْرٍ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عَائِشَةَ تَزْعُمُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَمْكُثُ عِنْدَ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ جَحْشٍ وَيَشْرَبُ عِنْدَهَا عَسَلًا فَتَوَاصَيْتُ أَنَا وَحَفْصَةُ أَنَّ أَيَّتَنَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلْتَقُلْ إِنِّي أَجِدُ مِنْكَ رِيحَ مَغَافِيرَ أَكَلْتَ مَغَافِيرَ فَدَخَلَ عَلَى إِحْدَاهُمَا فَقَالَتْ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَقَالَ لَا بَلْ شَرِبْتُ عَسَلًا عِنْدَ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ جَحْشٍ وَلَنْ أَعُودَ لَهُ فَنَزَلَتْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ
إِنْ تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ (‏لِعَائِشَةَ وَحَفْصَةَ)
وَإِذْ أَسَرَّ النَّبِيُّ إِلَى بَعْضِ أَزْوَاجِهِ حَدِيثًا لِقَوْلِهِ بَلْ شَرِبْتُ عَسَلًا
و قَالَ لِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى عَنْ هِشَامٍ وَلَنْ أَعُودَ لَهُ وَقَدْ حَلَفْتُ فَلَا تُخْبِرِي بِذَلِكِ أَحَدًا
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 78, #682, Book: Oaths and Vows; Page 1416, #6691 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 63, #192, Book: al-Talaq; Page 1156, #5267 (Arabic version)

Narrated 'Aisha: Allah's Apostle used to drink honey in the house of Zainab, the daughter of Jahsh, and would stay there with her. So Hafsa and I agreed secretly that, if he come to either of us, she would say to him. "It seems you have eaten Maghafir (a kind of bad-smelling resin), for I smell in you the smell of Maghafir," (We did so) and he replied. "No, but I was drinking honey in the house of Zainab, the daughter of Jahsh, and I shall never take it again. I have taken an oath as to that, and you should not tell anybody about it."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #434, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1072, #4912 (Arabic version)

Hafsa, daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab used to also anger the prophet so much that he remains angry the whole day! Is this the way to treat the apostle of God who came as a mercy from Allah to mankind to drive the people from ignorance to light. Does she not know that angering the prophet brings the wrath of Allah?

Narrated Ibn Abbas: For the whole year I had the desire to ask 'Umar bin Al-Khattab regarding the explanation of a Verse (in Surat Al-Tahrim) but I could not ask him because I respected him very much. When he went to perform the Hajj, I too went along with him. On our return, while we were still on the way home. 'Umar went aside to answer the call of nature by the Arak trees. I waited till he finished and then I proceeded with him and asked him. "O chief of the Believers! Who were the two wives of the Prophet who aided one another against him?" He said, "They were Hafsa and 'Aisha." Then I said to him, "By Allah, I wanted to ask you about this a year ago, but I could not do so owing to my respect for you." 'Umar said, "Do not refrain from asking me. If you think that I have knowledge (about a certain matter), ask me; and if I know (something about it), I will tell you." Then Umar added, "By Allah, in the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance we did not pay attention to women until Allah revealed regarding them what He revealed regarding them and assigned for them what He has assigned. Once while I was thinking over a certain matter, my wife said, "I recommend that you do so-and-so." I said to her, "What have you got to do with the is matter? Why do you poke your nose in a matter which I want to see fulfilled.?" She said, How strange you are, O son of Al-Khattab! You don't want to be argued with whereas your daughter, Hafsa surely, argues with Allah's Apostle so much that he remains angry for a full day!" 'Umar then reported; how he at once put on his outer garment and went to Hafsa and said to her, "O my daughter! Do you argue with Allah's Apostle so that he remains angry the whole day?" Hafsa said, "By Allah, we argue with him."

'Umar said, "Know that I warn you of Allah's punishment and the anger of Allah's Apostle . . . O my daughter! Don't be betrayed by the one who is proud of her beauty because of the love of Allah's Apostle for her (i.e. 'Aisha)." 'Umar added, "Then I went out to Um Salama's house who was one of my relatives, and I talked to her. She said, O son of Al-Khattab! It is rather astonishing that you interfere in everything; you even want to interfere between Allah's Apostle and his wives!' By Allah, by her talk she influenced me so much that I lost some of my anger. I left her (and went home). ...

(One day) my Ansari friend unexpectedly knocked at my door, and said, "Open Open!' I said, 'Has the king of Ghassan come?' He said, 'No, but something worse; Allah's Apostle has isolated himself from his wives.' I said, 'Let the nose of 'Aisha and Hafsa be stuck to dust (i.e. humiliated)!' Then I put on my clothes and went to Allah's Apostle's residence, and behold, he was staying in an upper room of his to which he ascended by a ladder, and a black slave of Allah's Apostle was (sitting) on the first step. I said to him, 'Say (to the Prophet ) 'Umar bin Al-Khattab is here.' Then the Prophet admitted me and I narrated the story to Allah's Apostle. When I reached the story of Um Salama, Allah's Apostle smiled while he was lying on a mat made of palm tree leaves with nothing between him and the mat. ...

Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #435, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1073, #4913 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #436, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1073, #4914 (Arabic version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #437, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1074, #4915 (Arabic version)

Narrated 'Umar: The wives of the Prophet out of their jealousy, backed each other against the Prophet, so I said to them, "It may be, if he divorced you all, that Allah will give him, instead of you wives better than you." So this Verse was revealed. (66.5)
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #438, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1074, #4916 (Arabic version)

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: I had been eager to ask 'Umar bin Al-Khattab about the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said 'If you two (wives of the Prophet namely Aisha and Hafsa) turn in repentance to Allah, your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes). (66.4) till 'Umar performed the Hajj and I too, performed the Hajj along with him. ... Then I said to him, "O chief of the Believers! Who were the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said: 'If you two (wives of the Prophet) turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes)?" (66.4) He said, "I am astonished at your question, O Ibn Abbas. They were 'Aisha and Hafsa." Then 'Umar went on narrating the Hadith and said, "... I shouted at my wife and she retorted against me and I disliked that she should answer me back. She said to me, 'Why are you so surprised at my answering you back? By Allah, the wives of the Prophet answer him back and some of them may leave (does not speak to) him throughout the day till the night.' The (talk) scared me and I said to her, 'Whoever has done so will be ruined!' Then I proceeded after dressing myself, and entered upon Hafsa and said to her, 'Does anyone of you keep the Prophet angry till night?' She said, 'Yes.' I said, 'You are a ruined losing person! Don't you fear that Allah may get angry for the anger of Allah's Apostle and thus you will be ruined? So do not ask more from the Prophet and do not answer him back and do not give up talking to him. Ask me whatever you need and do not be tempted to imitate your neighbor (i.e., 'Aisha) in her manners for she is more charming than you and more beloved to the Prophet.

... My Ansari companion, on the day of his turn, went (to the town) and returned to us at night and knocked at my door violently and asked if I was there. I became horrified and came out to him. He said, 'Today a great thing has happened.' I asked, 'What is it? Have (the people of) Ghassan come?' He said, 'No, but (What has happened) is greater and more horrifying than that: Allah's Apostle; has divorced his wives. 'Umar added, "The Prophet kept away from his wives and I said "Hafsa is a ruined loser.' I had already thought that most probably this (divorce) would happen in the near future. So I dressed myself and offered the morning prayer with the Prophet and then the Prophet; entered an upper room and stayed there in seclusion. I entered upon Hafsa and saw her weeping. I asked, 'What makes you weep? Did I not warn you about that? Did the Prophet divorce you all?' She said, 'I do not know. There he is retired alone in the upper room.' I came out and sat near the pulpit and saw a group of people sitting around it and some of them were weeping. I sat with them for a while but could not endure the situation, so I went to the upper room where the Prophet; was and said to a black slave of his, 'Will you get the permission (of the Prophet ) for 'Umar (to enter)?' The slave went in, talked to the Prophet about it and then returned saying, 'I have spoken to the Prophet and mentioned you but he kept quiet.' Then I returned and sat with the group of people sitting near the pulpit. but I could not bear the situation and once again I said to the slave, 'Will you get the permission for 'Umar?' He went in and returned saying, 'I mentioned you to him but he kept quiet.' So I returned again and sat with the group of people sitting near the pulpit, but I could not bear the situation, and so I went to the slave and said, 'Will you get the permission for 'Umar?' He went in and returned to me saying, 'I mentioned you to him but he kept quiet.' When I was leaving, behold! The slave called me, saying, 'The Prophet has given you permission.'

Then I entered upon Allah's Apostle and saw him Lying on a bed made of stalks of date palm leaves and there was no bedding between it and him. The stalks left marks on his side and he was leaning on a leather pillow stuffed with date-palm fires. I greeted him and while still standing I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Have you divorced your wives?' He looked at me and said, 'No.' I said, 'Allah Akbar!' And then, while still standing, I said chatting, 'Will you heed what I say, O Allah's Apostle? We, the people of Quraish used to have power over our women, but when we arrived at Medina we found that the men (here) were overpowered by their women.' The Prophet smiled and then I said to him, 'Will you heed what I say, O Allah's Apostle? I entered upon Hafsa and said to her, "Do not be tempted to imitate your companion ('Aisha), for she is more charming than you and more beloved to the Prophet.' " The Prophet smiled for a second time. When I saw him smiling, I sat down. Then I looked around his house, and by Allah, I could not see anything of importance in his house except three hides, so I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah to make your followers rich, for the Persians and the Romans have been made prosperous and they have been given (the pleasures of the world), although they do not worship Allah.' Thereupon the Prophet sat up as he was reclining. and said, 'Are you of such an opinion, O the son of Al-Khattab? These are the people who have received the rewards for their good deeds in this world.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Ask Allah to forgive me.' Then the Prophet kept away from his wives for twenty-nine days because of the story which Hafsa had disclosed to 'Aisha. The Prophet had said, 'I will not enter upon them (my wives) for one month,' because of his anger towards them, when Allah had admonished him. So, when twenty nine days had passed, the Prophet first entered upon 'Aisha. 'Aisha said to him, 'O Allah's Apostle! You had sworn that you would not enter upon us for one month, but now only twenty-nine days have passed, for I have been counting them one by one.' The Prophet said, 'The (present) month is of twenty nine days.' 'Aisha added, 'Then Allah revealed the Verses of the option. (2) And out of all his-wives he asked me first, and I chose him.' Then he gave option to his other wives and they said what 'Aisha had said . " (1) The Prophet, ' had decided to abstain from eating a certain kind of food because of a certain event, so Allah blamed him for doing so. Some of his wives were the cause of him taking that decision, therefore he deserted them for one month. See Quran: (66.4)

Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, #119, Book: al-Nikah; Page 1140, #5191 (Arabic version)

Other conspiracies against the prophet
Several narrations show that Aisha was the author of two other conspirations. The first conspiration against the prophet resulted in the divorce of Malika Bint Ka'b, who was known for her outstanding beauty. The second conspiration also resulted in the divorce of Asma Bint Nu'man, also known for her beauty. Here are the narrations related to the events.

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) married Malika Bint Ka'b who was known for her outstanding beauty. Aisha went to see her and said to her: "Aren't you ashamed to marry your father's killer?" She then sought refuge against the Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF), whereupon he divorced her. Her people came to him and said: "O Prophet of Allah, she is young and lacking in perception. She was deceived, so take her back". The Prophet (PBUH&HF) refused to do so. Her father was killed on the day of the conquest of Mecca, and his killer was Khalid Ibn al-Walid al-Khandama."
مليكة بنت كعب الكنانية، ذكر الواقدي عن أبي معشر أن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم تزوج بها وكانت تذكر بجمال بارع فدخلت عليها عائشة فقالت لها: أما تستحين أن تنكحي قاتل أبيك وكان أبوها قتل يوم فتح مكة قتله خالد بن الوليد، قال: فاستعاذت من النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فطلقها فجاء قومها يسألونه أن يراجعها واعتذروا عنها بالصغر وضعف الرأي وأنها خدعت فأبى
Reference:
     al-Isabat by Ibn Hajar, chapter 8
     al-Tabaqat by Ibn Sa'd, chapter 8
     Ibn Kathir, v5, p299

The same story was reported by ibn Katheer in his al-Bidayah wal Nihayah

وقال محمد بن سعد عن الواقدي: حدثني أبو معشر قال: تزوَّج رسول الله مليكة بنت كعب وكانت تذكر بجمال بارع فدخلت عليها عائشة فقالت: ألا تستحين أن تنكحي قاتل أبيك؟ فاستعاذت منه، فطلقها. فجاء قومها فقالوا: يا رسول الله إنها صغيرة، ولا أرى لها وإنها خدعت فارتجعها، فأبى فاستأذنوه أن يزوِّجوها بقريب لها من بني عذرة، فأذن لهم. قال: وكان أبوها قد قتله خالد بن الوليد يوم الفتح

Some scholars seem to have rejected such stories as we find in al-Tabaqat by ibn Sa'ad:

قال محمد بن عمر مما يضعف هذا الحديث ذكر عائشة أنها قالت لها ألا تستحيين وعائشة لم تكن مع رسول الله في ذلك السفر أخبرنا محمد بن عمر حدثني عبد العزيز الجندعي عن أبيه عن عطاء بن يزيد الجندعي قال تزوج رسول الله مليكة بنت كعب الليثي في شهر رمضان سنة ثمان ودخل بها فماتت عنده قال محمد بن عمر وأصحابنا ينكرون ذلك ويقولون لم يتزوج كنانية قط أخبرنا محمد بن عمر قال حدثني محمد بن عبد الله عن الزهري مثل ذلك

And in Tarikh al-Dhahabi:

وهذا حديث ساقط كالذي قبله. وأوهى منهما ما روى الواقديّ، عن عبد العزيز الجندعيّ، عن أبيه، عن عطاء الجندعي قال: تزوّج النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مليكة بنت كعب اللّيثيّ في رمضان سنة ثمان، ودخل بها، فماتت عنده. قال الواقديّ: وأصحابنا ينكرون ذلك.

The following is the second conspiracy:

When Asma Bint Nu'man was being led as a bride to her groom (i.e., the Prophet), Aisha told her that the Prophet was highly pleased with the woman who, when he approaches her, says to him: "May Allah save me from you."
تزوج رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- أسماء بنت النعمان الجونية. فأرسلني، فجئت بها. فقالت حفصة لعائشة: أخضبيها أنت، وأنا أمشطها. ففعلتا. ثم قالت لها إحداهما: إن النبي -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- يعجبه من المرأة إذا دخلت عليه أن تقول: أعوذ بالله منك. فلما دخلت عليه، وأغلق الباب، وأرخى الستر، مد يده إليها. فقالت: أعوذ بالله منك. فقال رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- بكمه على وجهه، فاستتر به. وقال: (عذت بمعاذ ثلاث مرات). قال أبو أسيد: ثم خرج إلي.
فقال: (يا أبا أسيد، ألحقها بأهلها، ومتعها برازقيين). يعني: كرباسين. فكانت تقول: ادعوني الشقية.
Reference:
     al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v4, p37, on the account of Asma
     al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v4, p233
     al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, p104, v8, p145
     Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, v2, p69

Narrated Al-Awza: I asked Az-Zuhri, "Which of the wives of the Prophet sought refuge with Allah from him?" He said "I was told by 'Ursa that 'Aisha said, 'When the daughter of Al-Jaun was brought to Allah's Apostle (as his bride) and he went near her, she said, "I seek refuge with Allah from you." He said, "You have sought refuge with The Great; return to your family."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 63, #181: , Book: al-Talaq; Page 1154, #5254 (Arabic version)

Narrated Abu Usaid: We went out with the Prophet to a garden called Ash-Shaut till we reached two walls between which we sat down. The Prophet said, "Sit here," and went in (the garden). The Jauniyya (a lady from Bani Jaun) had been brought and lodged in a house in a date-palm garden in the home of Umaima bint An-Nu'man bin Sharahil, and her wet nurse was with her. When the Prophet entered upon her, he said to her, "Give me yourself (in marriage) as a gift." She said, "Can a princess give herself in marriage to an ordinary man?" The Prophet raised his hand to pat her so that she might become tranquil. She said, "I seek refuge with Allah from you." He said, "You have sought refuge with One Who gives refuge. Then the Prophet came out to us and said, "O Abu Usaid! Give her two white linen dresses to wear and let her go back to her family." Narrated Sahl and Abu Usaid: The Prophet married Umaima bint Sharahil, and when she was brought to him, he stretched his hand towards her. It seemed that she disliked that, whereupon the Prophet ordered Abu Usaid to prepare her and to provide her with two white linen dresses. (See Hadith No. 541).
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 63, #182: , Book: al-Talaq; Page 1154, #5254 (Arabic version)

Her harsh opposition to Uthman and repudiation of Ali's caliphate
Aisha, with the help of Talha, Zubayr and Bani Ummaya, raised a campaign to avenge the killing of Uthman, while she herself showed great opposition to Uthman to the point of instigating the people to kill him because he has become a Kafir. Out of ignorance and lack of education, many Muslims believe this is a concoction of the Shia'a. I have one advice to them: read your own books and believe in your creed out of conviction instead of mere blind imitation!

al-Tabari in his Tarikh and ibn Atheer in his Tarikhul Kamil report the following:

"Ubayd bin Abi Salma who was a maternal relative of Ayesha met her as she was making her way to Madina. Ubayd said "Uthman has been killed and the people were without an Imam for eight days" to which Ayesha asked "What did they do next?". Ubayd said "The people approached 'Ali and gave him bayya". When she heard that, she said: "the falling of the skies on the earth is better than the establishment of Ali's caliphate! Take me back! Take me back to Makka". She then turned her face towards Makka and said, 'Verily Uthman was murdered innocently, and By Allah, I shall avenge his blood'. Ubayd then said 'You are now calling Uthman innocent, even though it was you who said 'Kill Nathal, this Jew".
كتب إلي علي بن أحمد بن الحسن العجلي أن الحسين بن نصر العطار قال حدثنا أبي نصر بن مزاحم العطار قال حدثنا سيف بن عمر عن محمد بن نويرة وطلحة بن الأعلم الحنفي قال وحدثنا عمر بن سعد عن أسد بن عبدالله عمن أدرك من أهل العلم
أن عائشة رضي الله عنها لما انتهت إلى سرف راجعة في طريقها إلى مكة لقيها عبد بن أم كلاب وهو عبد بن أبي سلمة ينسب إلى أمه فقالت له مهيم قال قتلوا عثمان رضي الله عنه فمكثوا ثمانيا قالت ثم صنعوا ماذا قال أخذها أهل المدينة بالاجتماع فجازت بهم الأمور إلى خير مجاز اجتمعوا على علي بن أبي طالب فقالت والله ليت أن هذه انطبقت على هذه إن تم الأمر لصاحبك ردوني ردوني فانصرفت إل مكة وهي تقول قتل والله عثمان مظلوما والله لأطلبن بدمه فقال لها ابن ام كلاب ولم فوالله إن أول من أمال حرفه لأنت ولقد كنت تقولين اقتلوا نعثلا فقد كفر

She had herself hoped for the killing of Uthman as al-Tabari reported above:

"Kill Nathal May Allah (swt) kill him because he has become a kaafir".

When Uthman was alive, she opposed him, instigated his killing and accused him of becoming a Kafir. But when she learned that Uthman was murdered and the people chose Ali as their caliph, she made the decision to avenge him. What an inconsistency! When Aisha reached Mecca, the people gathered in the Mosque and told them: "Uthman was murdered and by Allah I am demanding to avenge him", as al-Tabari reported in his Tarikh:

فانصرفت إلى مكة فنزلت على باب المسجد فقصدت للحجر فسترت واجتمع إليها الناس فقالت يا أيها الناس إن عثمان قتل مظلوما ووالله لأطلبن بدمه

ibn Katheer in his النهاية في غريب الحديث والأثر also reported the same thing as al-Tabari:

نعثل} (ه) في مَقْتَل عثمان -لا يَمْنَعنَّك مكانُ ابنِ سَلاَم أن تَسُبَّ نَعْثَلاً- كان أعداء عثمان يسمّونه نَعْثَلا، تشبيها برجل من مِصر (في الهروي: -مُضَر-)، كان طويل اللحية اسمُه نَعْثَل. وقيل: النَّعْثَل: الشيخ الأحْمَقُ، وذَكَرُ الضِباع. *ومنه حديث عائشة -اقتُلوا نَعْثَلا، قَتَل اللَّه نَعْثَلا- تَعْني عثما وهذا كان منها لمَّا غاضَب وذَهَبَتْ إلى مكة

ibn Atheer in al-Nihaya also defined the term used by Aisha:

"Nathal is one who has a long beard and Ayesha said kill this Nathal, by Nathal she was referring to Uthman".

al-Alusi in his تفسير روح المعاني reported the same threat from Aisha:

ولما تقدم وما زعمته الشيعة من أنها رضي الله تعالى عنها أنت هي التي تحرض الناس على قتل عثمان وتقول: اقتلوا نعثلاً فقد فجر، تشبهه بيهودي يدعى نعثلاً حتى إذا قتل وبايع الناس علياً قالت: ما أبالي أن تقع السماء على الأرض قتل والله مظلوماً وأنا طالبة بدمه

Others who reported Aisha's incitement to kill Uthman are many: Manaqib by Khawarzmi, page 117, Tadkhirath al Khawwas page 38, Asadul Ghaba Volume 3 page 14, "Dhikr Jamal", Al Istiab Volume 2 page 185, Qamus page 500 "lughut Nathal" by Firozabadi, Iqd al Fareed Volume 2 page 117 "Dhikr Jamal", Sharh Nahjul Balagha Ibn al Hadeed Volume 2 page 122, Shaykh Mudheera page 163.

It is reported in al-Seerah al-Halabiya that Imam Ali wrote the following letter to Aisha (al-Seerah al-Halabiya) when herself and her army camped outside of Basrah:

You have left your home and claimed that you wanted reform the Ummah and demanded to avenge the blood of Uthman, while it was only yesterday that you had said 'Kill Nathal May Allah (swt) kill him because he has become a kaafir'. And today you are demanding to avenge him. Therefore, fear Allah and return to your home.

Aisha even tried to get ibn Abbas to help her with her opposition to Uthman and remove him from the caliphate. Here is a conversation between ibn Abbas and Aisha, shedding some light on her opposition to Uthman, her desire to have Talha as his replacement and her unwillingess to see Ali become the next caliph (al-Tabari in his Tarikh):

While Ibn Abbas was setting out for Mecca, he found Aisha in al-Sulsul (seven miles south of Medina). Aisha said: "O' Ibn Abbas, I appeal to you by God, to abandon this man (Uthman) and sow doubt about him among the people, for you have been given a sharp tongue. (By the current siege over Uthman) people have shown their understanding, and light is raised to guide them. I have seen Talha has taken the possession of the keys to the public treasuries and storehouses. If he becomes Caliph (after Uthman), he will follow in the path of his parental cousin Abu-Bakr." Ibn Abbas said: "O' Mother (of believers), if something happens to that man (i.e., Uthman), people would seek asylum only with our companion (namely, Ali)." Aisha replied: "Be quiet! I have no desire to defy or quarrel with you."
وقد كانت عائشة رضي اللّه عنها خرجت إلى مكة معتمرة قبل أن يقتل عثمان رضي اللّه عنه بعشرين يوماً، ولمَّا خرج ابن عباس على الحج كما أمره عثمان ليتلو على أهل مكة كتابه رضي اللّه عنه، مرَّ بعائشة في الصُّلصُل - بنواحي المدينة على سبعة أميال منها - فقالت: يا ابن عباس أنشدُك اللّه فإنك أُعطيت لساناً إزعيلاً(191) أن تخذل عن هذا الرجل - تعني عثمان - وأن تشك فيه الناس، فقد بانت لهم بصائرهم وأنهجت ورُفعت لهم المنار، وتحلبوا من البلدان لأمر قد جم. وقد رأيت طلحة بن عبيد اللّه قد اتخذ على بيوت الأموال والخزائن مفاتيح. فإِن يَلِ (الخلافة بعد عثمان) يسر بسيرة ابن عمه أبي بكر رضي اللّه عنه. فقال لها ابن عباس رضي اللّه عنه: يا أمَّهْ! لو حدث ما فزع الناس إلا إلى صاحبنا - يعني لو قتل عثمان لبايع الناس عليّاً - فقالت: إيهاً عنك! إني لست أُريد مكابرتك ولا مجادلتك

Muhammad Rida noted in his book Ali ibn Abi Talib writes the following (from the History of al-Tabari):

Aisha desired that ibn abbas forsakes Uthman and hoped that Talha, who was harshly opposed to Uthman, becomes the caliph. This way the khilafat returns back to Bani Taym (tribe of Aisha). She hated that Ali becomes the caliph but when she learned that the people will give their pledge to him if Uthman is killed, she headed for Macca. When she was returnig back to Medina, she ran into Ubay ibn abi Salamah who told her that Uthman was killed and the people remained 8 days without a caliph. Then Aisha asked: "Then what happened?". He responded: "The people agreed to make Ali caliph. Then she exclaimed: "I wish the sky had fallen onto the earth if that is what happened! Take me back! Take me back to Makka":" She returned to Macca and used to say: "Uthman was killed unfairly, by Allah I will avenge him." Ubay ibn abi Salamah asked: "and why? By Allah you were the first one who hoped for this was you! And you used to say 'Kill that Na'athal for he has become Kafir'". Then Ubay ibn abi Salamah composed the following verses:

You started it and now you are changing and raising storms of wind and rain
You ordered for his killing ad told us that he had turned uneliever
We admit that he has been killed but under your orders and the real Killer is one who ordered it
Nevertheless, neither the sky fell over us nor did the sun and the moon fell into eclipse
Certainly people have paid allegiance to one who can ward off the enemy with power and grandeur, does ont allow swords to come near him and loosens the twist of the rope, that is, subdues the enemy
He is always fully armed for combat and the faithful is never like the traitor.

فقد كانت عائشة رضي اللّه عنها تريد أن يخذل ابن عباس عن عثمان. وتود أن يلي الخلافة طلحة الذي كان شديداً على عثمان فتعود الخلافة تيمية كما كانت، وتكره أن يلي الخلافة عليٌّ لكنها لما علمت أن الناس سيبايعونه إذا قُتل عثمان خرجت إلى مكة، ولما خرجت من مكة تريد المدينة لقيها بسَرِفْ(192) رجل من أخوالها من بني ليث يقال له: عبيد بن أبي سلمة فقالت له: مَهْيَمْ؟(193) قال: قُتل عثمان وبقوا ثمانية. قالت: ثم صنعوا ماذا؟ قال: اجتمعوا على بيعة عليٍّ. فقالت: ليت هذه انطبقت على هذه إن تمَّ الأمر لصاحبك (أي ليت السماء انطبقت على الأرض) ردوني! ردوني! فانصرفت إلى مكة وهي تقول: "قُتل واللَّه عثمان مظلوماً. واللّه لأطلبن بدمه" فقال لها: ولِمَ؟ واللّه إن أوَّل من أمال حرفه لأنتِ. ولقد كنت تقولين: اقتلوا نعثلاً (عثمان) فقد كفر، وفي رواية: (فقد فجر). قالت: إنهم استتابوه ثم قتلوه. وقد قلت وقالوا، وقولي الأخير خيرٌ من قولي الأول. فقال لها ابن أم كلاب (وهو عبيد بن أبي سلمة)(194):
[ص 91] فمنك البَداء ومنك الغِيَرْ * ومنك الرياح ومنك المطرْ
وأنت أمرت بقتل الإمام * وقلت لنا: إنه قد كفرْ
فَهَبْنا أطعناك في قتله * وقاتله عندنا من أَمَرْ
ولم يسقط السقف من فوقنا * ولم ينكسف شمسنا والقمرْ
وقد بايع الناس ذا تُدْرَاءٍ * يزيل الشَّبا ويقيم الصَّعرْ
ويلبس للحرب أثوابها * وما مَنْ وَفَى مثلُ من قد غدرْ
ثم انصرفت إلى مكة فقصدت الحِجر فستَّرت فيه فاجتمع الناس حولها

Why did she hate the idea that Ali becomes caliph of the Muslim? Is he not worthy of this honorable position? Has she forgotten the virtues of Ahlul Bayt, and in particular of Ali, as we reminded you in the previous section? Is he not the most pious, the most fearful to Allah, the most knowledgeable, the most courageous, the purest, the distinguisher between truth and falsehood, the most truthful, and the most just than all the companions? Is he not the most beloved to the prophet and to Allah, his brother in this world and the hereafter, the master of all believers and the Imam of all the pious? What valid argument does she have to oppose the caliphate of Ali? First she strongly opposed Uthman and wanted him killed. Then she talked to ibn Abbas into helping her unseat Uthman from the khilafat. Third, her desire was to have Talha or even Zubayr to take on the khilafat. So this was her plan. Then when she heard that Uthman was murdered and that Ali became the caliph (as ibn Abbas foretold), she lost her mind and she preferred to see that the skies fall on the earth than to see Ali become the caliph!

The Battle of the Camel
This battle shows the enmity of Aisha towards Imam Ali at its peak. The battle is discussed in detail in this section. This was a battle between the companions of the prophet, namely between Imam Ali on one side, who was the established caliph after the murder of Uthman, and Aisha, Talha and Zubayr on the other side.

As for Ali, I can only repeat what the prophet said:

  1. Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with 'Ali, the two shall not separate until the meet me at the Fountain of Kauthar
  2. Oh Allah! turn the haqq with Ali wherever he ('Ali) turns
  3. Oh Allah! Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali
  4. I am the city of Knowledge and Ali is its gate.
As for those who fought Ali and caused the death of 1000's of innocent people, I can also repeat what the prophet said:
  1. The Prophet (PBUH) looked toward Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Fatimah (AS), and then said: "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you."
  2. Whoever loves Ali has loved me, and whoever hates Ali has hated me
  3. By Him Who split up the seed and created something living, the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) gave me a promise that no one but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me.
  4. Whoever obeys , 'Ali has obeyed me, and whoever disobeys , 'Ali has disobeyed me
  5. Ali is my brother in this world and the hereafter
  6. Whomever i am his master, Ali is also his mater. Oh God, befriend who befriends him, be the enemy of whoever is his enemy, support whoever supports him and forsake whoever forsakes him.
So essentially, by fighting Ali, aisha and her supporters have fought the prophet and Allah.

Aisha's hatred towards Ali
This issue is a very serious matter. Ahlul Sunnah refuse to criticize the misconduct of the companions of the prophet and his wife, mainly Umna Aisha. Their attitude is baseless as there is no hadith or Quranic verse that condemns it. Surely, the companions and the wives of the prophet are fallible and therefore can err. It is for this reason that the prophet left al-Thaqalayn to protect the Ummah against straying off the right path: the Quran and Ahlul Bayt. These two are the only distinguisher of truth from falsehood and the only bearers of authentic knowledge. Surely the companions and Aisha have erred and we ought to learn from that instead of hiding it and never talk about it.

Imam Ali gave his best to avoid the civil war against Aisha and her supporters. Her fight against him costs the lives of over 10,000 people. Were any of them responsible for the murder of Uthman? If you don't call this enmity or hatred, what is it then?? This is without mentioning the hadith of the prophet which states that fighting Ahlul Bayt is also fighting the prophet, which winds up fighting against Allah? What do you call when someone fights the most beloved people to Allah and the prophet

Here is an incident that shows Aisha's dislike of Ali. She failed to defend Ali when someone used abusive words against him, she failed to protect his honor and status, but she did not hesitate to defend the honor of 'Ammar ibn Yasir! Now is that hatred for Ali or love?

Ata Ibn Yasar narrated that a certain person came to Aisha and began to use impudent and abusive words for Ali and Ammar. She said to him: "As regards Ali, I have nothing to tell you, but as regards Ammar, I have heard the Messenger of Allah saying about him that if he has to make a choice between two things he will always choose that which is better from the point of view of good guidance and salvation."
حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي حدثنا أبو أحمد قال حدثنا عبد الله بن حبيب عن حبيب ابن أبي ثابت عن عطاء بن يسار قال جاء رجل فوقع في علي وفي عمار رضي الله تعالى عنهما عند عائشة فقالت أما علي فلست قائلة لك فيه شيئا وأما عمار فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: -لا يخير بين أمرين إلا اختار أرشدهما.‏
Sunni References:
     Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal: v6, p113 [entire book: p1855, #25331]

Aisha could not even mention Ali's name in some instances:

Narrated Az-Zuhari: Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah told me that 'Aisha had said, "When the Prophet became sick and his condition became serious, he requested his wives to allow him to be treated in my house, and they allowed him. He came out leaning on two men while his feet were dragging on the ground. He was walking between Al-'Abbas and another man." 'Ubaidullah said, "When I was informed by Ibn 'Abbas of what 'Aisha had said, he asked me whether I knew who was the second man whom 'Aisha had not named. I replied in the negative. He said, 'He was 'Ali bin Abi Talib."
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏إبراهيم بن موسى ‏ ‏أخبرنا ‏ ‏هشام ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏معمر ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الزهري ‏ ‏قال أخبرني ‏ ‏عبيد الله بن عبد الله ‏ ‏قالت ‏ ‏عائشة ‏ ‏رضي الله عنها
‏ ‏لما ثقل النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏فاشتد وجعه استأذن أزواجه أن يمرض في بيتي فأذن له فخرج بين رجلين تخط رجلاه الأرض وكان بين ‏ ‏العباس ‏ ‏وبين رجل آخر ‏ ‏فقال ‏ ‏عبيد الله ‏ ‏فذكرت ‏ ‏لابن عباس ‏ ‏ما قالت ‏ ‏عائشة ‏ ‏فقال لي وهل تدري من الرجل الذي لم تسم ‏ ‏عائشة ‏ ‏قلت لا قال هو ‏ ‏علي بن أبي طالب
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 47, Number 761, Book: Gifts; Page 537, #2088 (Arabic version)

Aisha hated Ali so much that she could not mention his name:

When Ubaidullah Ibn Utbah mentioned to Ibn Abbas that Aisha said "In his death-illness the Prophet was brought to (Aisha's) house while his shoulders were being supported by Fadhl Ibn Abbas and another person", then Abdullah Ibn Abbas said: "Do you know who this 'other man' was?" Ibn Utbah replied: "No." Then Ibn Abbas said: "He was Ali Ibn Abi Talib, but she is averse to name him in a good context."
حدثنا عبد الله حدثنا أبي حدثنا عبد الرزاق عن معمر قال قال الزهري وأخبرني عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبة أن عائشة أخبرته قالت: أول ما اشتكى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في بيت ميمونة فاستأذن أزواجه أن يمرض في بيتها فأذنَّ له قالت: فخرج ويد له على الفضل بن عباس ويد له على رجل آخر وهو يخط برجليه في الأرض قال عبيد الله فحدثت به ابن عباس فقال أتدرون من الرجل الآخر الذي لم تسم عائشة هو علي ولكن عائشة لا تطيب له نفسا
Reference:
     Musnad by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, pp 34,228
     al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, part 2, p29
     History of al-Tabari (Arabic), v1, pp 1800-1801
     al-Ansab al-Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, pp 544-545

Here is another narration in the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي حدثنا عبد الأعلى عن معمر عن الزهري عن عبيد الله بن عبد الله عن عائشة قالت لما مرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في بيت ميمونة فاستأذن نساءه أن يمرض في بيتي فأذنَّ له فخرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم معتمدا على العباس وعلى رجل آخر ورجلاه تخطان في الأرض وقال عبيد الله فقال ابن العباس أتدري من ذلك الرجل هو علي بن أبي طالب ولكن عائشة لا تطيب لها نفسا

And here is the version reported by ibn Sa'ad in his Tabaqat:

خبرنا يعقوب بن إبراهيم بن سعد الزهري عن أبيه عن صالح بن كيسان عن بن شهاب قال لما اشتد برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وجعه (ص 232) استأذن نساءه أن يكون في بيت عائشة ويقال إنما قالت ذلك لهن فاطمة فقالت إنه يشق على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الاختلاف فأذن له فخرج من بيت ميمونة إلى بيت عائشة تخط رجلاه بين عباس ورجل آخر حتى دخل بيت عائشة فزعموا أن بن عباس قال من الرجل الآخر قالوا لا ندري قال هو علي بن أبي طالب أخبرنا أحمد بن الحجاج قال أخبرنا عبد الله بن المبارك قال أخبرنا معمر ويونس عن الزهري أخبرني عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن عتبة أن عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما ثقل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم واشتد وجعه استأذن أزواجه في أن يمرض في بيتي فأذن له فخرج بين رجلين تخط رجلاه في الأرض بين بن عباس تعني الفضل ورجل آخر قال عبيد الله فأخبرت بن عباس بما قالت قال فهل ندري من الرجل الآخر الذي لم تسم عائشة قال قلت لا قال بن عباس هو علي إن عائشة لا تطيب له نفسا بخير...

There are many other reports that show Aisha's hatred towards Ali. Here is one from 'Ali Muttaqi al Hind in Kanz al-`ummal:

Hadhrath Ali said, "Ayesha fought me because firstly being a woman she possessed a weak judgement and secondly she bore enmity towards me and it would open in the same way a pot is opened. She would have never fought anyone other than me in that way".

Badr al Din Hanafi in Umdah al Qari fi Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, Volume 2 page 740, Chapter 4 Hud ul Mareez reports that:

"Hadhrath Ayesha, could not bear hearing a good thing about 'Ali, and this is solid evidence of her being an enemy of Ali, for Nasibis to proclaim that the narrators of these Hadith are weak, is not a valid excuse, because this is testified in the annals of history".

"Muammar narrates that Ayesha was never happy narrating anything good about 'Ali, Zuhri narrates that Ayesha did not possess the ability to say anything good of 'Ali".

In Iqd al Fareed by ibn Abd Rabbih al-Andalusi writes:

Following the Battle of Jamal Hadhrath Ali sent a message to Ayesha via Ibn Abbas that she leave Basra and return (from where she came). Ayesha replied 'Yes I am returning of all the cities, I hate this city the most since this is the one in which Banu Hashim reside

In Al Imama wal Siyasa by Ibn Qutaybah writes:

Following Uthman's murder Zubayr approached Ayesha in Makka and said 'Look they have made 'Ali Khalifa. She said, What right does 'Ali have to rule over our necks? I will not stay in Madina as long as 'Ali is in power

Her hatred reached a point where she felt a great relief when she heard that Ali died. The following is from the Tarikh of Imam ibn Jarir al-Tabari (ibn Sa'ad in his Taabqat al-Kubra also reported that Aisha recited this couplet):

When news of 'Ali's death reached Aishah, she said: And she threw down her staff and settled upon her place of abode, like the traveller happy to return home".
ولما انتهى إلى عائشة قتل علي رضي الله عنه قالت
فألقت عصاها واستقرت بها النوى *
كما قر عينا بالإياب المسافر *
فمن قتله قيل رجل من مراد فقالت
فإن يك نائيا فلقد نعاه *
غلام ليس في فيه التراب *
فقالت زينب ابنة أبي سلمة ألعلي تقولين هذا فقالت إني أنسى فإذا نسيت فذكروني وكان الذي ذهب بنعيه سفيان بن عبد شمس بن أبي وقاص الزهري وقال ابن أبي مياس المرادي في قتل (ص 160) علي

I can't help repeating what the prophet said:

Zirr reported: 'Ali observed: By Him Who split up the seed and created something living, the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) gave me a promise that no one but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me
لا يحب عليا منافق ولا يبغضه مؤمن
من أحب عليا أحبني ومن أبغض عليا فقد أبغضني

another version of this known hadith is:

لا يبغضك إلا منافق ولا يحبك إلا مؤمن

Her disobedience to Allah and His prophet
Quran 33:33
And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.
وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

This verse has been discussed in detail in this section.

As to whether Aisha disobeyed Allah and his prophet, she has done so in different ways:

  1. Fighting Ahlul Bayt and showing enmity towards them is equivalent to fight Allah and his prophet and is therefore disoedience to Him.
  2. In one of his letters to Aisha, Ali emphasized that Aisha disobeyed Allah by leaving her home to lead an army to Basra:
    In the name of God Who is Most Beneficent and Most Merciful. You have left your home in direct contravention of the commandments of God and His Messenger, and now you are sowing seeds of civil war among the Muslims. Just pause for a moment and think about this: What do you have to do with armies and wars? Is it your job to fight? And fight against whom? Against the Muslims? Your place is in your home. God has commanded you to stay in your home. Therefore, fear Him, and do not disobey Him, and return immediately to Medina."

    Since Ali inherited the knowledge of the prophet and is a member of Ahlul Bayt who are the second of the Thaqalayn and who are to be followed unconditionally in order not to stray off, his interpretration of the verse is largely enough.

Aisha prevents the burial of imam Hassan next to his grand-father, the prophet
Many Sunnis scholars and historians and scholars such as Yusuf Sibt ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira Khawasul-Umma, Allama Masu'udi in his Murujuz-Dhahab, Ibn Abil-Hadid in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha and Muhammad Khwawind Shah in his Rauzatu's-Safa have reported that Aisha, accompanied by some members of Umayya, mounted on a mule and prevented the body of imam Hassan to be buried next to the prophet. You would think she had repented after the battle of the Camel!

The following is the will of Imam al-Hassan to his brother al-Hussein as reported by Sheikh al-Mufid in his Kitabul Irshad:

"My brother, I am leaving you and joining my Lord. I have been given poison to drink and have spewed my liver into a basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful action. I will oppose him before God, the Mighty and High. Therefore by the right I have with regard to you, say nothing about that and wait for what God, the Mighty and High, will decide concerning me. When I have died, shut my eyes, wash me and shroud me. Then carry me on my bier to the grave of my grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, so that I may renew my covenant with him. After that take me to the grave of my grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad, may God be pleased with her, and bury me ther. My brother, the people will think that you intend to bury me with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. For that reason, they will gather to prevent you from doing it. I swear by God that you should not shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command".

Then he made his testamentary bequests to his family and his children. (He gave him) his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, had bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had declared him worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shia that he was his successor, and set him up as their sign-post after himself.

When he passed on his (final) journey, al-Husayn, peace be on him, washed and shrouded his (body). Then he carried him on his bier. Marwan and those of the Banu Umayya who were with him had no doubt that they would try to bury him beside the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. They gathered together and armed themselves. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, approached the tomb of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, with (the body of al-Hasan) so that he might renew his covenant with him, they came towards them with their group. 'A'isha had joined them on a mule and she was saying: "What is there between you and me that you should allow someone I don't want to, to enter my house?"

Marwan began to recite: "O Lord, battle is better than ease. (Then he went on:) "Should Uthman be buried in the outskirts of Medina and al-Hasan be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family? That will never be while I carry a sword."

Discord was about to occur between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim. Ibn 'Abbas hurried to Marwan and said to him: "Go back to where you came from, Marwan. Indeed we do not intend to bury our companion with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. But we want him to be able to renew his covenant with him by visiting him. Then we will take him back to his grandmother, Fatima, and bury him alongside her according to his last instructions concerning that. If he had enjoined that he should be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, you know that you would be the least able to deter us from that. However, he, peace be on him, was much too aware of God and His Apostle and the sacredness of his tomb to bring bloodshed to it as others have done (who) have entered it without his permission."

Then he went to A'isha and said to her: "What mischief you bring about, one day on a mule and one day on a camel! Do you want to extinguish the light of God and fight the friends (awliya') of God? Go Back ! You have been given assurance against what you fear and have learned what you wanted (to know). By God, victory will come to this House, even if it is after some time."

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, said: "By God, if there had been no injunction to me from al-Hasan, peace be on him, to prevent bloodshed and that I should not even pour blood into a cupping-glass in (carrying out) his command, you would have known how the swords of God would have taken their toll from you, you have broken the agreement which was made between you and us, you have ignored the conditions which we made with him for ourselves.

Then they went on with (the body of) al-Hasan, peace be on him, and they buried him in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi' beside his grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. 'Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her.

وروى عبد الله بن إبراهيم عن زياد المخارقي قال: لما حضرت الحسن الوفاة استدعى الحسين بن علي عليهما السلام فقال: يا أخي إني مفارقك ولاحق بربي عز وجل وقد سقيت السم ورميت بكبدي في الطست ، وإني لعارف بمن سقاني السم ومن أين دهيت وأنا أخاصمه إلى الله تعالى ، فبحقي عليك إن تكلمت في ذلك بشئ ، وانتظر ما يحدث الله عز ذكره فيَّ ، فإذا قضيت فغمضني وغسلني وكفني واحملني على سريري إلى قبر جدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لأجدد به عهداً ، ثم ردني إلى قبر جدتي فاطمة بنت أسد رحمة الله عليها فادفني هناك . وستعلم يا ابن أم أن القوم يظنون أنكم تريدون دفني عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فيجلبون في منعكم عن ذلك وبالله أقسم عليك أن تهريق في أمري محجمة دم . ثم وصى عليه السلام إليه بأهله وولده وتركاته ، وما كان وصى به إليه أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام حين استخلفه وأهله لمقامه، ودل شيعته على استخلافه ونصبه لهم علماً من بعده . فلما مضى لسبيله غسله الحسين عليهما السلام وكفنه وحمله على سريره ، ولم يشك مروان ومن معه من بني أمية أنهم سيدفنونه عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فتجمعوا له ولبسوا السلاح ، فلما توجه به الحسين بن علي إلى قبر جده رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ليجدد به عهداً أقبلوا إليهم في جمعهم ، ولحقتهم عائشة على بغل وهي تقول: مالي ولكم تريدون أن تُدخلوا بيتي من لا أحب . وجعل مروان يقول: يا رُبَّ هَيْجا هي خيرٌ من دعهْ ! أيدفن عثمان في أقصى المدينة ، ويدفن الحسن مع النبي؟ لا يكون ذلك أبداً وأنا أحمل السيف ! وكادت الفتنة تقع بين بني هاشم وبني أمية ، فبادر ابن عباس إلى مروان فقال له: إرجع يا مروان من حيث جئت ، فإنا ما نريد أن ندفن صاحبنا عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لكنا نريد أن نجدد به عهداً بزيارته ، ثم نرده إلى جدته فاطمة فندفنه عندها بوصيته بذلك ، ولو كان وصَّى بدفنه مع النبي صلى الله عليه وآله لعلمت أنك أقصر باعاً من ردنا عن ذلك ، لكنه عليه السلام كان أعلم بالله ورسوله وبحرمة قبره من أن يطرق عليه هدماً كما طرق ذلك غيره ، ودخل بيته بغير إذنه ! ثم أقبل على عائشة فقال لها:

وا سوأتاه ! يوماً على بغل ويوماً على جمل ، تريدين أن تطفئي نور الله ، وتقاتلين أولياء الله ؟! إرجعي فقد كفيت الذي تخافين وبلغت ما تحبين ، والله تعالى منتصر لأهل هذا البيت ولو بعد حين .

وقال الحسين عليه السلام : والله لولا عهد الحسن إليَّ بحقن الدماء وأن لا أهريق في أمره محجمة دم ، لعلمتم كيف تأخذ سيوف الله منكم مأخذها ، وقد نقضتم العهد بيننا وبينكم ، وأبطلتم ما اشترطنا عليكم لأنفسنا !

ومضوا بالحسن عليه السلام فدفنوه بالبقيع عند جدته فاطمة بنت أسد بن هاشم بن عبد مناف رضي الله عنها وأسكنها جنات النعيم

al-Tusi also reported a similar version of the story in his amalihi from ibn Abbas thru different chains of transmission:

عن ابن عباس، قال: (دخل الحسين بن علي على أخيه الحسن بن علي في مرضه الذي توفي فيه فقال له: كيف تجدك يا أخي؟ قال: أجدني في أول يوم من أيام الآخرة وآخر يوم من أيام الدنيا ، واعلم أني لا أسبق أجلي ، وأني وارد على أبي وجدي ، على كره مني لفراقك وفراق إخوتك وفراق الأحبة ، وأستغفر الله من مقالتي هذه وأتوب إليه ، بل على محبة مني للقاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وأمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب ولقاء فاطمة وحمزة وجعفر ، وفي الله عز وجل خلف من كل هالك ، وعزاء من كل مصيبة ودرك من كل ما فات . رأيت يا أخي كبدي آنفاً في الطست ، ولقد عرفت من دهاني ومن أين أتيت ، فما أنت صانع به يا أخي؟ فقال الحسين: أقتله والله . قال: فلا أخبرك به أبداً حتى نلقى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، ولكن اكتب: هذا ما أوصى به الحسن بن علي إلى أخيه الحسين بن علي ، أوصى أنه يشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، وأنه يعبده حق عبادته لا شريك له في الملك ولا ولي له من الذل ، وأنه خلق كل شئ فقدره تقديراً ، وأنه أولى من عبد وأحق من حمد من أطاعه رشد ، ومن عصاه غوى ومن تاب إليه اهتدى .

فإني أوصيك يا حسين بمن خلفت من أهلي وولدي وأهل بيتك ، أن تصفح عن مسيئهم ، وتقبل من محسنهم ، وتكون لهم خلفاً ووالداً ، وأن تدفنني مع جدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فإني أحق به وببيته ممن أدخل بيته بغير إذنه ولا كتاب جاءهم من بعده ! قال الله تعالى فيما أنزله على نبيه في كتابه:يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلا أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ ، فوالله ما أذن لهم في الدخول عليه في حياته بغير إذنه ، ولا جاءهم الاذن في ذلك من بعد وفاته ، ونحن مأذون لنا في التصرف فيما ورثناه من بعده ، فإن أبت عليك الإمرأة فأنشدك بالقرابة التي قرب الله عز وجل منك ، والرحم الماسة من رسول الله أن لا تهريق فيَّ محجمة من دم حتى نلقى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فنختصم إليه ، ونخبر بما كان من الناس إلينا بعده . ثم قبض .

قال ابن عباس: فدعاني الحسين وعبد الله بن جعفر وعلي بن عبد الله بن العباس فقال: غسِّلوا ابن عمكم ، فغسلناه وحنطناه وألبسناه أكفانه (أي ساعدوا الحسين عليه السلام ) ، ثم خرجنا به حتى صلينا عليه في المسجد ، وإن الحسين أمر أن يفتح البيت(بيت حجرة النبي صلى الله عليه وآله التي دفن فيها)فحال دون ذلك مروان بن الحكم وآل أبي سفيان ومن حضر هناك من ولد عثمان بن عفان ، وقالوا أيدفن أمير المؤمنين عثمان الشهيد القتيل ظلماً بالبقيع بشرِّ مكان ، ويدفن الحسن مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، والله لايكون ذلك أبداً حتى تكسر السيوف بيننا وتنقصف الرماح وينفد النبل !

فقال الحسين: أما والله الذي حرم مكة لَلحسن بن علي بن فاطمة أحق برسول الله وبيته ممن أدخل بيته بغير إذنه ، وهو والله أحق به من حمال الخطايا ، مُسَيِّر أبي ذر رحمه الله الفاعل بعمار ما فعل وبعبد الله ما صنع ، الحامي الحمى ، المؤوي لطريد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ! لكنكم صرتم بعده الأمراء وبايعكم على ذلك الأعداء وأبناء الأعداء . قال: فحملناه فأتينا به قبر أمه فاطمة فدفناه إلى جنبها رضي الله عنه وأرضاه . قال ابن عباس: وكنت أول من انصرف فسمعت اللغط وخفت أن يعجل الحسين على من قد أقبل ورأيت شخصاً علمت الشر فيه ، فأقبلت مبادراً فإذا أنا بعائشة في أربعين راكباً على بغل مرحَّل تقدمهم وتأمرهم بالقتال ، فلما رأتني قالت: إليَّ إليَّ يا ابن عباس لقد اجترأتم عليَّ في الدنيا تؤذونني مرة بعد أخرى ، تريدون أن تدخلوا بيتي من لا أهوى ولا أحب ! فقلت: واسوأتاه ! يوم على بغل ويوم على جمل ! تريدين أن تطفئي فيه نور الله وتقاتلي أولياء الله وتحولي بين رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وبين حبيبه أن يدفن معه ، إرجعي فقد كفى الله المؤنة ودُفِنَ الحسن إلى جنب أمه ، ولم يزدد من الله إلا قرباً وما ازددتم منه والله إلا بعداً ! يا سوأتاه ! إنصرفي فقد رأيت ما سرك ! قال: فقطَّبَتْ في وجهي ونادت بأعلى صوتها: أما نسيتم الجمل يا ابن عباس إنكم لذوو أحقاد ! فقلت: أما والله ما نسيه أهل السماء فكيف ينساه أهل الأرض؟! فانصرفت وهي تقول:

فألقت عصاها فاستقرت بها النوى كما قر عيناً بالإياب المسافر).

Ibn Katheer reports in his al-Bidayah wal Nihayah that a fitna was about to happen between al-Hussein and Marwan ibn al-Hakam regarding the burial of imam al-Hassan. The latter had already told his brother that if his burial next to the prophet was going to cause bloodshed, to bury him in al-Baqui'i. According to this report, Marwan did not allow al-Hussein to preceed to the prophet's burial place. Ibn Katheer also reports in a narration that al-Hassan asked permission from Aisha for his burial close to the prophet and she accepted.

وقال الواقدي: ثنا إبراهيم بن الفضل، عن أبي عتيق قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: شهدنا حسن بن علي يوم مات وكادت الفتنة تقع بين الحسين بن علي ومروان بن الحكم، وكان الحسن قد عهد إلى أخيه أن يدفن مع رسول الله، فإن خاف أن يكون في ذلك قتال أو شر فليدفن بالبقيع.
فأبى مروان أن يدعه - ومروان يومئذ معزول يريد أن يرضي معاوية - ولم يزل مروان عدواً لبني هاشم حتى مات.
قال جابر: فكلمت يومئذ حسين بن علي فقلت: يا أبا عبد الله اتق الله ولا تثر فتنة، فإن أخاك كان لا يحب ما ترى، فادفنه بالبقيع مع أمه ففعل.
ثم روى الواقدي: حدثني عبد الله بن نافع، عن أبيه، عن عمر قال: حضرت موت الحسن بن علي فقلت للحسين بن علي: اتق الله، ولا تثر فتنة ولا تسفك الدماء، وادفن أخاك إلى جانب أمه، فإن أخاك قد عهد بذلك إليك، قال: ففعل الحسين.
وقد روى الواقدي: عن أبي هريرة نحواً من هذا.

وفي رواية: أن الحسن بعث يستأذن عائشة في ذلك، فأذنت له.
فلما مات لبس الحسين السلاح، وتسلح بنو أمية، وقالوا: لا ندعه يدفن مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، أيدفن عثمان بالبقيع، ويدفن الحسن بن علي في الحجرة؟
فلما خاف الناس وقوع الفتنة أشار سعد بن أبي وقاص، وأبو هريرة، وجابر، وابن عمر، على الحسين أن لا يقاتل، فامتثل ودفن أخاه قريباً من قبر أمه بالبقيع، رضي الله عنه.

If aisha did indeed permit al-Hassan to be buried by this grand-father, why did she not confront Marwan ibn al-Hakam who was working for Mua'awiyah? She sure had the power to wage a war against Ali, in which Marwan participated and killed Talha with an arrow.

Aisha grieved the prophet
Is it not shameful for someone to raise his or her voice on the prophet of Allah??? Allah condemned such action which will cause your good deeds to become vain:
Quran 49:1-3
O Ye who believe! Put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger; but fear Allah: for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things. O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not. Those that lower their voices in the presence of Allah's Messenger,- their hearts has Allah tested for piety: for them is Forgiveness and a great Reward.
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ - ِ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِندَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

Aisha raised her voice on the beloved prophet of God! Such a misdeed was not committed by any of his other wives:

Abu Bakr once came to the Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF), and sought permission to enter. Before he went in, he heard Aisha's voice raised, saying to the Prophet (PBUH&HF): "By Allah! I surely know that Ali is dearer to you than me and my father", she repeated this twice or three times".
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ حَدَّثَنَا الْعِيزَارُ بْنُ حُرَيْثٍ قَالَ قَالَ النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ بَشِيرٍ قَالَ اسْتَأْذَنَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَسَمِعَ صَوْتَ عَائِشَةَ عَالِيًا وَهِيَ تَقُولُ وَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ عَرَفْتُ أَنَّ عَلِيًّا أَحَبُّ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ أَبِي وَمِنِّي مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلَاثًا فَاسْتَأْذَنَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَدَخَلَ فَأَهْوَى إِلَيْهَا فَقَالَ يَا بِنْتَ فُلَانَةَ أَلَا أَسْمَعُكِ تَرْفَعِينَ صَوْتَكِ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
Reference:
     Musnad ibn Hanbal, v4, p275 [Entire book:(p1343, #18611)]

Aisha was obviously mad about the fact that Ali was dearer to him than her father was. This drove her so mad that she raised her voice on the beloved prophet of Allah. Could it be why she hated or disliked Ali?

Ibn Quayyim in his Tahdheeb Sunnan ibn Dawud (Kitabul Adab, #4991) narrates the following narration (my own translation), which seems the continuation of the above narration:

Abu Bakr sought permission to visit the prophet. Then he heard Aisha talking to the prophet with an elevated voice. When he entered, he scolded her and tried to slap her. But the prophet disallowed him. Abu Bakr walked out angry about his daughter's misbehaviour.
حدثنا يَحْيَى بنُ مَعِينٍ أخبرنا حَجّاجُ بنُ مُحَمّدٍ أخبرنا يُونُسُ بنُ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ عنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ عن الْعَيْزَارِ بنِ حُرَيْثٍ عن حُرَيْثٍ عن النّعْمَانِ ابنِ بَشِيرٍ قَالَ: "اسْتَأْذَنَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَلَى النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَمِعَ صَوْتَ عَائِشَةَ عَالِياً، فَلَمّا دَخَلَ تَنَاوَلَهَا لِيَلْطِمَهَا، وَقالَ: لاَ أَرَاكِ تَرْفَعِينَ صَوْتَكِ عَلَى رَسُولِ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فَجَعَلَ النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَحْجُزُهُ، وَخَرَجَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُغْضَباً، فقَالَ النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ خَرَجَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ كَيْفَ رَأَيْتِنِي أَنْقَذْتُكِ مِنَ الرّجُلِ، قال: فَمَكَثَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَيّاماً، ثُمّ اسْتَأْذَنَ عَلَى رَسُولِ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فَوَجَدَهُمَا قَدِ اصْطَلَحَا، فقَالَ لَهُمَا أَدْخِلاَنِي فِي سِلْمِكُمَا كَما أَدْخَلْتُمَانِي فِي حَرْبِكُمَا، فقَالَ النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم: قَدْ فَعَلْنَا قَدْ فَعَلْنَا"

ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his Fat-hul Barri commented that this hadith was reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Dawud and al-Nisa'i with a reliable chain of transmission:

وأخرج أحمد وأبو داود والنسائي بسند صحيح عن النعمان بن بشير قال: " استأذن أبو بكر على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فسمع صوت عائشة عاليا وهي تقول: والله لقد علمت أن عليا أحب إليك من أبي

al-Hafidh al-Haythami in his Majmau'ul Zawa'id reported the same narration:

وعن النعمان بن بشير قال: استأذن أبو بكر على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسمع صوت عائشة عالياً وهي تقول: والله لقد عرفت أن علياً وفاطمة أحب إليك مني ومن أبي - مرتين أو ثلاثاً - . فاستأذن أبو بكر [فدخل] فأهوى إليها فقال: يا بنت فلانة لا أسمعك ترفعين صوتك على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. قلت: رواه أبو داود غير ذكر علي وفاطمة.
رواه أحمد ورجاله رجال الصحيح

Aisha followed the innovation of Uthman ibn Affan
It is known that travellers shorten their prayers to 2 rakats during their journey. This practice was preserved for a certain time, and was then changed by Uthman later during his caliphate and Aisha followed his inovation.

Taqseer (shortening of the traveller prayer) was part of the Sunnah:

Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet once stayed for nineteen days and prayed shortened prayers. So when we travelled (and stayed) for nineteen days, we used to shorten the prayer but if we travelled (and stayed) for a longer period we used to offer the full prayer.
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو عَوَانَةَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عَاصِمٍ ‏ ‏وَحُصَيْنٍ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عِكْرِمَةَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏‏أَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ يَقْصُرُ فَنَحْنُ إِذَا سَافَرْنَا تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ قَصَرْنَا وَإِنْ زِدْنَا أَتْمَمْنَا ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #186-187, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1080-1081, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1080, #1081)

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: I accompanied Allah's Apostle and he never offered more than two Rakat during the journey. Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman used to do the same.
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏مُسَدَّدٌ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏يَحْيَى ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عِيسَى بْنِ حَفْصِ بْنِ عَاصِمٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي ‏ ‏أَبِي ‏ ‏أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ ‏ ‏ابْنَ عُمَرَ ‏ ‏يَقُولُ ‏ ‏صَحِبْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏فَكَانَ ‏ ‏لَا يَزِيدُ فِي السَّفَرِ عَلَى رَكْعَتَيْنِ ‏ ‏وَأَبَا بَكْرٍ ‏ ‏وَعُمَرَ ‏ ‏وَعُثْمَانَ ‏ ‏كَذَلِكَ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #206, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 234, #1102, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1102)

Narrated Haritha bin Wahab: The Prophet led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rakat.
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏شُعْبَةُ ‏ ‏أَنْبَأَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو إِسْحَاقَ ‏ ‏قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ‏ ‏حَارِثَةَ بْنَ وَهْبٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏صَلَّى بِنَا النَّبِيُّ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏آمَنَ مَا كَانَ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏رَكْعَتَيْنِ ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #189, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1083, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1083)

Ibn 'Abbas reported: Allah has prescribed the prayer through the word of your Prophet (may peace be upon him) as four rak'ahs when resident, two when travelling, and one when danger is present.
‏ ‏و حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ ‏ ‏وَعَمْرٌو النَّاقِدُ ‏ ‏جَمِيعًا ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏عَمْرٌو ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏قَاسِمُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ الْمُزَنِيُّ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَيُّوبُ بْنُ عَائِذٍ الطَّائِيُّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏بُكَيْرِ بْنِ الْأَخْنَسِ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏مُجَاهِدٍ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَرَضَ الصَّلَاةَ عَلَى لِسَانِ نَبِيِّكُمْ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏عَلَى الْمُسَافِرِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَعَلَى الْمُقِيمِ أَرْبَعًا وَفِي الْخَوْفِ رَكْعَةً ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 004, #1463, Chapter 96, The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 250, #(687)-5, Book: Salat al-Mussafereen wa Qassruha - (Arabic version, #(687)-5)

The Change of the Sunnah:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I offered the prayer with the Prophet, Abu Bakr and 'Umar at Mina and it was of two Rakat. 'Uthman in the early days of his caliphate did the same, but later on he started praying the full prayer.
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏مُسَدَّدٌ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏يَحْيَى ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي ‏ ‏نَافِعٌ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏رَكْعَتَيْنِ ‏ ‏وَأَبِي بَكْرٍ ‏ ‏وَعُمَرَ ‏ ‏وَمَعَ ‏ ‏عُثْمَانَ ‏ ‏صَدْرًا مِنْ إِمَارَتِهِ ثُمَّ أَتَمَّهَا ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #188 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1082, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1082)

Narrated 'Abdur Rahman bin Yazid: We offered a four Rakat prayer at Mina behind Ibn 'Affan . 'Abdullah bin Masud was informed about it. He said sadly, "Truly to Allah we belong and truly to Him we shall return." And added, "I prayed two Rakat with Allah's Apostle at Mina and similarly with Abu Bakr and with 'Umar (during their caliphates)." He further said, "May I be lucky enough to have two of the four Rakat accepted (by Allah)."
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ بْنُ زِيَادٍ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏الْأَعْمَشِ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏إِبْرَاهِيمُ ‏ ‏قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ‏ ‏عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ يَزِيدَ ‏ ‏يَقُولُ ‏ ‏صَلَّى بِنَا ‏ ‏عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَفَّانَ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ فَقِيلَ ذَلِكَ ‏ ‏لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏فَاسْتَرْجَعَ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏ ‏صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَصَلَّيْتُ مَعَ ‏ ‏أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَصَلَّيْتُ مَعَ ‏ ‏عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏بِمِنًى ‏ ‏رَكْعَتَيْنِ فَلَيْتَ حَظِّي مِنْ أَرْبَعِ رَكَعَاتٍ رَكْعَتَانِ مُتَقَبَّلَتَانِ ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #190 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 232, #1084, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1084)

Narrated 'Aisha: "When the prayers were first enjoined they were of two Rakat each. Later the prayer in a journey was kept as it was but the prayers for non-travellers were completed." Az-Zuhri said, "I asked 'Urwa what made Aisha pray the full prayers (in journey)." He replied, "She did the same as 'Uthman did."
‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏سُفْيَانُ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏الزُّهْرِيِّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عُرْوَةَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عَائِشَةَ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا ‏ ‏قَالَتْ ‏ ‏الصَّلَاةُ أَوَّلُ مَا فُرِضَتْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ فَأُقِرَّتْ صَلَاةُ السَّفَرِ وَأُتِمَّتْ صَلَاةُ الْحَضَرِ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏الزُّهْرِيُّ ‏ ‏فَقُلْتُ ‏ ‏لِعُرْوَةَ ‏ ‏مَا بَالُ ‏ ‏عَائِشَةَ ‏ ‏تُتِمُّ قَالَ ‏ ‏تَأَوَّلَتْ مَا تَأَوَّلَ ‏ ‏عُثْمَانُ ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #196 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 233, #1090, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1090)

'A'isha reported: The prayer was prescribed as consisting of two rak'ats, the prayer in travelling remained the same, but the prayer at the place of residence was completed. (Zuhri said he asked 'Urwa why 'A'isha said prayer in the complete form during journey, and he replied that she interpreted the matter herself as 'Uthman did.)
‏ ‏و حَدَّثَنِي ‏ ‏عَلِيُّ بْنُ خَشْرَمٍ ‏ ‏أَخْبَرَنَا ‏ ‏ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏الزُّهْرِيِّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عُرْوَةَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏عَائِشَةَ ‏ ‏أَنَّ الصَّلَاةَ أَوَّلَ مَا فُرِضَتْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ فَأُقِرَّتْ صَلَاةُ السَّفَرِ وَأُتِمَّتْ صَلَاةُ الْحَضَرِ ‏ ‏قَالَ ‏ ‏الزُّهْرِيُّ ‏ ‏فَقُلْتُ ‏ ‏لِعُرْوَةَ ‏ ‏مَا بَالُ ‏ ‏عَائِشَةَ ‏ ‏تُتِمُّ فِي السَّفَرِ قَالَ إِنَّهَا تَأَوَّلَتْ كَمَا تَأَوَّلَ ‏ ‏عُثْمَانُ ‏
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 004, #1460 - The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 250, #(685)-3, Book: Salat al-Mussafereen wa Qassriha - (Arabic version, #(685)-3)

Did imam Ali divorce Aisha from the prophet on the Day of the Camel?
There are reports in the books of the Imamis Shia'a which claim that the prophet entrusted Imam Ali to divorce the former from any of his wives if any one of them disobeyed Allah by بالخروج عليك. This kind of divorce means losing all their privileges such as Mother of the believers and double of the normal reward for their good deeds. As a result of this entrustement and Aisha's opposition and warfare against Ahlul Bayt, Imam Ali was compelled to divorce Aisha from her husband, the prophet, in the Day of the Camel.

Al-Alusi reported this in his تفسير روح المعاني and strongly rejected it:

وذكر في المواهب أن في حل من اختارت منهن الدنيا للأزواج منهن طريقين أحدهما طرد الخلاف والثاني القطع بالحل واختار هذا الإمام والغزالي وحكى القول بأن المطلقة لا يثبت لها هذا الحكم عن الشيعة وقد رأيت في بعض كتبهم نفي الأمومة عن عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها قالوا: لأن النبي صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم فوض إلى علي كرم الله تعالى وجهه أن يبقي من يشاء من أزواجه ويطلق من يشاء منهن بعد وفاته وكالة عنه عليه الصلاة والسلام وقد طلق رضي الله تعالى عنه عائشة يوم الجمل فخرجت عن الأزواج ولم يبق لها حكمهن. وبعد أن كتبت هذا اتفق لي أن نظرت في كتاب ألفه سليمان بن عبد الله البحراني عليه من الله تعالى ما يستحق في مثالب جمع من الصحابة حاشى رضي الله تعالى عنهم فرأيت ما نصه: روى أبو منصور أحمد بن أبي طالب الطبرسي في كتاب الإحتجاج عن سعد بن عبد الله أنه سأل القائم المنتظر وهو طفل في حياة أبيه فقال له: يامولانا وابن مولانا روى لنا أن رسول الله صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم جعل طلاق نسائه إلى أمير المؤمنين علي كرم الله تعالى وجهه حتى أنه بعث في يوم الجمل رسولاً إلى عائشة وقال: إنك أدخلت الهلاك على الإسلام وأهله بالغش الذي حصل منك وأوردت أولادك في موضع الهلاك بالجهالة فإن امتنعت وإلا طلقتك فأخبرنا يامولانا عن معنى الطلاق الذي فوض حكمه رسول الله صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم إلى أمير المؤمنين فقال: إن الله تقدس اسمه عظم شأن نساء النبي صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم فخصهن بشرف الأمهات فقال عليه الصلاة والسلام: ياأبا الحسن إن هذا الشرف باق ما دمن على طاعة الله تعالى فأيتهن عصت الله تعالى بعدي بالخروج عليك فطلقها من الأزواج وأسقطها من شرف أمهات المؤمنين. ثم قال: وروى الطبرسي أيضاً في الإحتجاج عن الباقر أنه قال: لما كان يوم الجمل وقد رشق هودج عائشة بالنبل قال علي كرم الله تعالى وجهه: والله ما أراني إلا مطلقها فأنشد [- ج 21 ص 231 -] الله تعالى رجلاً سمع رسول الله صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم يقول: ياعلي أمر نسائي بيدك من بعدي لما قام فشهد فقام ثلاثة عشر رجلاً فشهدوا بذلك الحديث، ورأيت في بعض الأخبار التي لا تحضرني الآن ما هو صريح في وقوع الطلاق اه. ما قاله البحراني عامله الله تعالى بعدله.

Here is the general belief of the Shia on this issue, which was a response to a question regarding the validity of such entrustment, copied from http://www.aqaed.com/faq/question.php?qid=1054&gid=136:

وبعد ؛ ورد في بعض أخبارنا أن النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" أوصى علياً "عليه السلام" أن يطلّق أزواجه اللاتي يخرجن عليه بعد وفاته "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" . والظاهر أن الطلاق الذي قصده النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" من ذلك ليس هو الطلاق المتعارف ، إذ الطلاق الحقيقي هو كون الزوجة في حبالة زوجها فيصح انقطاع عصمتها عنه بتطليقها ، أما وفاة النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" فقد حالت دونه ودون أن تكون أزواجه في حبالته فيكف يصح انقطاع عصمتهن الزوجية بالطلاق ؟ إلاّ أن الذي نستظهره ـ وهو الأوفق إن شاء الله بالمقام ـ أن طلاق أزواجه حين خروجهن على إمامهن وقت ذاك علي بن أبي طالب "عليه السلام" ، بمعنى إلغاء خصوصيتها من مقام أزواج النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" وإلغاء كونها من أمهات المؤمنين ، وعدم شمولها بخصوصية أن يكون لها أجران من العمل لقوله تعالى "ومن يقنت منكن لله ورسوله وتعمل صالحاً نؤتها أجرها مرتين واعتدنا لها رزقاً كريماً" ، فهذه الخصوصيات والمنازل التي تتمتع بها أزواج النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" تلغى ومن ثم يسقط اعتبار تلك التي تخرج على إمام زمانها ، نعم تبقى خصوصية عدم جواز نكاحها من بعده حتى لو طلقت بالمعنى المجازي الذي ذكرناه حرمة لرسول الله "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" وكرامة له ، فان مفعول الآية الكريمة لا يزال يبقى سارياً حتى لو طلقت من النبي "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" بهذا المعنى وهو قوله تعالى "ولا أن تنكحوا أزواجه من بعده أبداً" فالتأبيد هذا مراعاة لمقامه "صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم" في حرمة نكاح أزواجه من بعده.

Hadith al-Ifq
Some scholars such as al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, al-Bayhaqui and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, say that the victim of this incident is Aisha. Others say that the victim is Maria the Coptic. First, let look at Bukhari's version:
Quran 24:11
Surely they who concocted the lie are a party from among you. Do not regard it an evil to you; nay, it is good for you. Every man of them shall have what he has earned of sin; and (as for) him who took upon himself the main part thereof, he shall have a grievous chastisement.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاؤُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِّنكُمْ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَّكُم بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُم مَّا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّى كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

This verse was revealed by Allah to exonerate Aisha from the concocted accusation of adultery by some of the hypocrite companions. The story is narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari by Aisha:

Narrated 'Aisha: Whenever Allah's Apostle intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots amongst his wives, and Allah's Apostle used to take with him the one on whom lot fell. He drew lots amongst us during one of the Ghazwat which he fought. The lot fell on me and so I proceeded with Allah's Apostle after Allah's order of veiling (the women) had been revealed. I was carried (on the back of a camel) in my howdah and carried down while still in it (when we came to a halt). So we went on till Allah's Apostle had finished from that Ghazwa of his and returned.

When we approached the city of Medina he announced at night that it was time for departure. So when they announced the news of departure, I got up and went away from the army camps, and after finishing from the call of nature, I came back to my riding animal. I touched my chest to find that my necklace which was made of Zifar beads (i.e. Yemenite beads partly black and partly white) was missing. So I returned to look for my necklace and my search for it detained me. (In the meanwhile) the people who used to carry me on my camel, came and took my howdah and put it on the back of my camel on which I used to ride, as they considered that I was in it. In those days women were light in weight for they did not get fat, and flesh did not cover their bodies in abundance as they used to eat only a little food. Those people therefore, disregarded the lightness of the howdah while lifting and carrying it; and at that time I was still a young girl. They made the camel rise and all of them left (along with it). I found my necklace after the army had gone.

Then I came to their camping place to find no call maker of them, nor one who would respond to the call. So I intended to go to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back to me (in my search). While I was sitting in my resting place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan bin Al-Muattal As-Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before the order of compulsory veiling (was prescribed). So I woke up when he recited Istirja' (i.e. "Inna lillahi wa inna llaihi raji'un") as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my head cover at once, and by Allah, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him saying any word besides his Istirja'. He dismounted from his camel and made it kneel down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. Then he set out leading the camel that was carrying me till we overtook the army in the extreme heat of midday while they were at a halt (taking a rest). (Because of the event) some people brought destruction upon themselves and the one who spread the Ifk (i.e. slander) more, was 'Abdullah bin Ubai Ibn Salul."

(Urwa said, "The people propagated the slander and talked about it in his (i.e. 'Abdullah's) presence and he confirmed it and listened to it and asked about it to let it prevail." Urwa also added, "None was mentioned as members of the slanderous group besides ('Abdullah) except Hassan bin Thabit and Mistah bin Uthatha and Hamna bint Jahsh along with others about whom I have no knowledge, but they were a group as Allah said. It is said that the one who carried most of the slander was 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul." Urwa added, "'Aisha disliked to have Hassan abused in her presence and she used to say, 'It was he who said: My father and his (i.e. my father's) father and my honor are all for the protection of Muhammad's honor from you.").

'Aisha added, "After we returned to Medina, I became ill for a month. The people were propagating the forged statements of the slanderers while I was unaware of anything of all that, but I felt that in my present ailment, I was not receiving the same kindness from Allah's Apostle as I used to receive when I got sick. (But now) Allah's Apostle would only come, greet me and say,' How is that (lady)?' and leave. That roused my doubts, but I did not discover the evil (i.e. slander) till I went out after my convalescence, I went out with Um Mistah to Al-Manasi' where we used to answer the call of nature and we used not to go out (to answer the call of nature) except at night, and that was before we had latrines near our houses. And this habit of our concerning evacuating the bowels, was similar to the habits of the old 'Arabs living in the deserts, for it would be troublesome for us to take latrines near our houses. So I and Um Mistah who was the daughter of Abu Ruhm bin Al-Muttalib bin Abd Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr bin 'Amir and the aunt of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and whose son was Mistah bin Uthatha bin 'Abbas bin Al-Muttalib, went out. I and Um Mistah returned to my house after we finished answering the call of nature. Um Mistah stumbled by getting her foot entangled in her covering sheet and on that she said, 'Let Mistah be ruined!' I said, 'What a hard word you have said. Do you abuse a man who took part in the battle of Badr?' On that she said, 'O you Hantah! Didn't you hear what he (i.e. Mistah) said? 'I said, 'What did he say?'

Then she told me the slander of the people of Ifk. So my ailment was aggravated, and when I reached my home, Allah's Apostle came to me, and after greeting me, said, 'How is that (lady)?' I said, 'Will you allow me to go to my parents?' as I wanted to be sure about the news through them. Allah's Apostle allowed me (and I went to my parents) and asked my mother, 'O mother! What are the people talking about?' She said, 'O my daughter! Don't worry, for scarcely is there a charming woman who is loved by her husband and whose husband has other wives besides herself that they (i.e. women) would find faults with her.' I said, 'Subhan-Allah! (I testify the uniqueness of Allah). Are the people really talking in this way?' I kept on weeping that night till dawn I could neither stop weeping nor sleep then in the morning again, I kept on weeping. When the Divine Inspiration was delayed.

Allah's Apostle called 'Ali bin Abi Talib and Usama bin Zaid to ask and consult them about divorcing me. Usama bin Zaid said what he knew of my innocence, and the respect he preserved in himself for me. Usama said, '(O Allah's Apostle!) She is your wife and we do not know anything except good about her.' 'Ali bin Abi Talib said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Allah does not put you in difficulty and there are plenty of women other than she, yet, ask the maid-servant who will tell you the truth.' On that Allah's Apostle called Barira (i.e. the maid-servant) and said, 'O Barira! Did you ever see anything which aroused your suspicion?' Barira said to him, 'By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I have never seen anything in her (i.e. Aisha) which I would conceal, except that she is a young girl who sleeps leaving the dough of her family exposed so that the domestic goats come and eat it.'

So, on that day, Allah's Apostle got up on the pulpit and complained about 'Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Salul) before his companions, saying, 'O you Muslims! Who will relieve me from that man who has hurt me with his evil statement about my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family and they have blamed a man about whom I know nothing except good and he used never to enter my home except with me.' Sad bin Mu'adh the brother of Banu 'Abd Al-Ashhal got up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! I will relieve you from him; if he is from the tribe of Al-Aus, then I will chop his head off, and if he is from our brothers, i.e. Al-Khazraj, then order us, and we will fulfill your order.' On that, a man from Al-Khazraj got up. Um Hassan, his cousin, was from his branch tribe, and he was Sad bin Ubada, chief of Al-Khazraj. Before this incident, he was a pious man, but his love for his tribe goaded him into saying to Sad (bin Mu'adh). 'By Allah, you have told a lie; you shall not and cannot kill him. If he belonged to your people, you would not wish him to be killed.'

On that, Usaid bin Hudair who was the cousin of Sad (bin Mu'adh) got up and said to Sad bin 'Ubada, 'By Allah! You are a liar! We will surely kill him, and you are a hypocrite arguing on the behalf of hypocrites.' On this, the two tribes of Al-Aus and Al Khazraj got so much excited that they were about to fight while Allah's Apostle was standing on the pulpit. Allah's Apostle kept on quietening them till they became silent and so did he. All that day I kept on weeping with my tears never ceasing, and I could never sleep.

In the morning my parents were with me and I wept for two nights and a day with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep till I thought that my liver would burst from weeping. So, while my parents were sitting with me and I was weeping, an Ansari woman asked me to grant her admittance. I allowed her to come in, and when she came in, she sat down and started weeping with me. While we were in this state, Allah's Apostle came, greeted us and sat down. He had never sat with me since that day of the slander. A month had elapsed and no Divine Inspiration came to him about my case. Allah's Apostle then recited Tashah-hud and then said, 'Amma Badu, O 'Aisha! I have been informed so-and-so about you; if you are innocent, then soon Allah will reveal your innocence, and if you have committed a sin, then repent to Allah and ask Him for forgiveness for when a slave confesses his sins and asks Allah for forgiveness, Allah accepts his repentance.'

When Allah's Apostle finished his speech, my tears ceased flowing completely that I no longer felt a single drop of tear flowing. I said to my father, 'Reply to Allah's Apostle on my behalf concerning what he has said.' My father said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle .' Then I said to my mother, 'Reply to Allah's Apostle on my behalf concerning what he has said.' She said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle.' In spite of the fact that I was a young girl and had a little knowledge of Quran, I said, 'By Allah, no doubt I know that you heard this (slanderous) speech so that it has been planted in your hearts (i.e. minds) and you have taken it as a truth. Now if I tell you that I am innocent, you will not believe me, and if confess to you about it, and Allah knows that I am innocent, you will surely believe me. By Allah, I find no similitude for me and you except that of Joseph's father when he said, '(For me) patience in the most fitting against that which you assert; it is Allah (Alone) Whose Help can be sought.' Then I turned to the other side and lay on my bed; and Allah knew then that I was innocent and hoped that Allah would reveal my innocence. But, by Allah, I never thought that Allah would reveal about my case, Divine Inspiration, that would be recited (forever) as I considered myself too unworthy to be talked of by Allah with something of my concern, but I hoped that Allah's Apostle might have a dream in which Allah would prove my innocence. But, by Allah, before Allah's Apostle left his seat and before any of the household left, the Divine inspiration came to Allah's Apostle.

So there overtook him the same hard condition which used to overtake him, (when he used to be inspired Divinely). The sweat was dropping from his body like pearls though it was a wintry day and that was because of the weighty statement which was being revealed to him. When that state of Allah's Apostle was over, he got up smiling, and the first word he said was, 'O 'Aisha! Allah has declared your innocence!' Then my Mother said to me, 'Get up and go to him (i.e. Allah's Apostle). I replied, 'By Allah, I will not go to him, and I praise none but Allah. So Allah revealed the ten Verses:-- "Verily! They who spread the slander Are a gang, among you............." (24.11-20)

Allah revealed those Quranic Verses to declare my innocence. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq who used to disburse money for Mistah bin Uthatha because of his relationship to him and his poverty, said, 'By Allah, I will never give to Mistah bin Uthatha anything after what he has said about Aisha.' Then Allah revealed: "And let not those among you who are good and wealthy swear not to give (any sort of help) to their kinsmen, those in need, and those who have left their homes for Allah's cause, let them pardon and forgive. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (24.22)

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, 'Yes, by Allah, I would like that Allah forgive me.' and went on giving Mistah the money he used to give him before. He also added, 'By Allah, I will never deprive him of it at all.'

Aisha further said:." Allah's Apostle also asked Zainab bint Jahsh (i.e. his wife) about my case. He said to Zainab, 'What do you know and what did you see?" She replied, "O Allah's Apostle! I refrain from claiming falsely that I have heard or seen anything. By Allah, I know nothing except good (about 'Aisha).' From amongst the wives of the Prophet Zainab was my peer (in beauty and in the love she received from the Prophet) but Allah saved her from that evil because of her piety. Her sister Hamna, started struggling on her behalf and she was destroyed along with those who were destroyed. The man who was blamed said, 'Subhan-Allah! By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I have never uncovered the cover (i.e. veil) of any female.' Later on the man was martyred in Allah's Cause."

{إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاؤُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَة مِّنكُمْ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَّكُم بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُم مَّا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّى كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ} (11)

(إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاءُوا بِالْأِفْكِ) أي بأبلغ ما يكون من الكذب والافتراء وكثيراً ما يفسر بالكذب مطلقاً، وقيل: هو البهتان لا تشعر به حتى يفجأك، وجوز فيه فتح الهمزة، والفاء وأصله من الأفك بفتح فسكون وهو القلب والصرف لأن الكذب مصروف عن الوجه الذي يحق، والمراد به ما أفك به الصديقة أم المؤمنين رضي الله تعالى عنها على أن اللام فيه للعهد، وجوز حمله على الجنس قيل فيفيد القصر كأنه لا إفك إلا ذلك الإفك، وفي لفظ المجيء إشارة إلى أنهم أظهروه من عند أنفسهم من غير أن يكون له أصل.

وتفصيل القصة ما أخرجه البخاري، وغيره عن عروة عن عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها قالت: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا أراد أن يخرج أقرع بين أزواجه، فأيتهن خرج سهمها خرج بها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم - معه - قالت عائشة - فأقرع بيننا في غزوة غزاها فخرج سهمي، فخرجت مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد ما نزل الحجاب فأنا أحمل في هودجي وأنزل فيه، فسرنا حتى إذا فرغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من تلك وقفل، ودنونا من المدينة قافلين آذن ليلة بالرحيل، فمشيت حتى جاوزت الجيش، فلما قضيت شأني أقبلت إلى رحلي فإذا عقد لي من جزع ظفار قد انقطع فالتمست عقدي وحبسني ابتغاؤه، وأقبل الرهط الذي كانوا يرحلون لي، فاحتملوا هودجي فرحلوه على بعيري الذي كنت ركبت، وهم يحسبون أني فيه. وكان النساء إذ ذاك خفافاً لم يثقلهن اللحم إنما نأكل العلقة من الطعام، فلم يستنكر القوم خفة الهودج حين رفعوه، وكنت جارية حديثة السن فبعثوا الجمل وساروا فوجدت عقدي بعدما استمر الجيش، فجئت منازلهم وليس بها داع ولا مجيب فأممت منزلي الذي كنت به وظننت أنهم سيفقدوني فيرجعون إلي.

فبينا أنا جالسة في منزلي غلبتني عيني فنمت، وكان صفوان بن المعطل السلمي ثم الذكواني من وراء الجيش فأدلج فأصبح عند منزلي، فرأى سواد إنسان نائم، فأتاني فعرفني وكان يراني قبل الحجاب فاستيقظت باسترجاعه حين عرفني، فخمرت وجهي بجلبابي والله ما كلمني كلمة، ولا سمعت منه كلمة غير استرجاعه حين أناخ راحلته فوطئ على يديها، فركبتها فانطلق يقود بي الراحلة حتى أتينا الجيش، بعد ما نزلوا موغرين في نحر الظهيرة فهلك في من هلك، وكان الذي تولى الإفك عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول فقدمنا المدينة فاشتكيت حين قدمت شهراً والناس يفيضون في قول أصحاب الإفك لا أشعر بشيء من ذلك وهو يريبني في وجعي أني لاأعرف من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم اللطف الذي كنت أرى منه حين أشتكي إنما يدخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيسلم ثم يقول: كيف تيكم؟ ثم ينصرف فذاك الذي يريبني ولا أشعر بالشر حتى خرجت بعدما نقهت.

فخرجت معي أم مسطح قبل المناصع وهو متبرزنا وكنا لا نخرج إلا ليلاً إلى ليل، وذلك قبل أن نتخذ الكنف قريباً من بيوتنا وأمرنا أمر العرب الأول في التبرز قبل الغائط، فكنا نتأذى بالكنف أن نتخذها عند بيوتنا، فانطلقت أنا وأم مسطح وهي ابنة أبي رهم بن عبد مناف وأمها بنت صخر بن عامر خالة أبي بكر الصديق وابنها مسطح بن أثاثة، فأقبلت أنا وأم مسطح قبل بيتي قد فرغنا من شأننا، فعثرت أم مسطح في مرطها فقالت: تعس مسطح فقلت لها: بئس ما قلت أتسبين رجلاً شهد بدراً؟ قالت: أي هنتاه أو لم تسمعي ما قال؟ قالت: قلت وما قال؟ فأخبرتني بقول أهل الإفك فازددت مرضاً على مرضي، فلما رجعت إلى بيتي ودخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم قال: كيف تيكم؟ فقلت: أتأذن لي أن آتي أبوي؟ قالت: وأنا حينئذ أريد أن أستيقن من قبلهما قالت: فأذن لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فجئت أبوي فقلت لأمي: يا أمتاه ما يتحدث الناس؟ قالت: يا بنية هوني عليك فو الله لقلما أنت امرأة قط وضيئة عند رجل ولها ضرائر إلا كثرن عليها قالت: فقلت سبحان الله ولقد تحدت الناس بهذا قالت: فبكيت تلك الليلة حتى أصبحت لا يرقأ دمع ولا أكتحل بنوم حتى أصبحت أبكي.

فدعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم علي بن أبي طالب وأسامة بن زيد حين استلبث الوحي يستأمرهما في فراق أهله قالت: فأما أسامة بن زيد فأشار على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالذي يعلم من براءة أهله، وبالذي يعلم لهم في نفسه من الود فقال: يا رسول الله أهلك وما نعلم إلا خيراً، وأما علي بن أبي طالب فقال: يا رسول الله لم يضيق الله عليك والنساء سواها كثير وإن تسأل الجارية تصدقك قالت: فدعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بريرة فقال: أي بريرة هل رأيت من شيء يريبك؟ قالت بريرة: لا والذي بعثك بالحق إن رأيت عليها أمراً أغمصه عليها أكثر من أنها جارية حديثة السن تنام عن عجين أهلها فتأتي الدواجن فتأكله، فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاستعذر يومئذ من عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول قالت: فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو على المنبر: يا معشر المسلمين من يعذرني من رجل قد بلغني أذاه في أهل بيتي؟ فو الله ما علمت على أهلي إلا خيراً ولقد ذكروا أن رجلاً ما علمت عليه إلا خيراً، وما كان يدخل على أهلي إلا معي.

فقام سعد بن معاذ الأنصاري فقال: يا رسول الله أنا أعذرك منه إن كان من الأوس ضربت عنقه، وإن كان من إخواننا من الخزرج أمرتنا ففعلنا أمرك قالت: فقام سعد بن عبادة وهو سيد الخزرج وكان قبل ذلك رجلاً صالحاً ولكن احتملته الحمية فقال لسعد: كذبت لعمر الله لا تقتله ولا تقدر على قتله، فقام أسيد بن خضير وهو ابن عم سعد فقال لسعد بن عبادة: كذبت لعمر الله لنقتلنه فإنك منافق تجادل عن المنافقين، فثار الحيان من الأوس والخزرج حتى هموا أن يقتتلوا ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قائم على المنبر، فلم يزل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يخفضهم حتى سكتوا وسكت.

قالت: فمكثت يومي ذلك لا يرقأ لي دمع ولا أكتحل بنوم قالت: فأصبح أبواي عندي وقد بكيت ليلتين ويوماً لا أكتحل بنوم ولا يرقأ لي دمع يظناني أن البكاء فالق كبدي قالت: فبينما هما جالسان عندي وأنا أبكي، فاستأذنت على امرأة من الأنصار، فأذنت لها فجلست تبكي معي قالت: فبينا نحن على ذلك دخل علينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسلم ثم جلس قالت: ولم يجلس عندي منذ قيل في ما قيل قبلها، وقد لبث شهراً لا يوحى إليه في شأني قالت: فتشهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين جلس ثم قال: أما بعد يا عائشة فإنه قد بلغني عنك كذا وكذا، فإن كنت بريئة فسيبرئك الله وإن كنت ألممت بذنب فاستغفري الله وتوبي إليه، فإن العبد إذا اعترف بذنبه ثم تاب إلى الله تاب الله عليه.

قالت: فلما قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مقالته قلص دمعي حتى ما أحس منه قطرة فقلت لأبي: أجب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما قال قال: والله ما أدري ما أقول لرسول الله فقلت لأمي: أجيبي رسول الله قالت: ما أدري ما أقول لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت: فقلت وأنا جارية حديثة السن لا أقرأ كثيراً من القرآن: إني والله لقد علمت أنكم سمعتم هذا الحديث حين استقر في أنفسكم وصدقتم به فلئن قلت لكم: إني بريئة والله يعلم أني بريئة لا تصدقوني، ولئن اعترفت لكم بأمر والله يعلم أني منه بريئة لتصدقني، والله لا أجد لي ولكم مثلاً إلا قول أبي يوسف: (فَصَبْرٌ جَمِيلٌ وَاللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ عَلَى مَا تَصِفُونَ) (يوسف: من الآية 18).

فاضطجعت على فراشي وأنا حينئذ أعلم أني بريئة وأن الله مبرئني ببراءتي ولكن ما كنت أظن أن الله منزل في شأني وحياً يتلى، ولشأني في نفسي كان أحقر من أن يتكلم الله في بأمر يتلى، ولكن كنت أرجو أن يرى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم رؤيا يبرئني الله بها قالت: فو الله ما رام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا خرج أحد من أهل البيت حتى أنزل عليه فأخذه ما كان يأخذه من البرحاء، حتى إنه ليتحدر منه مثل الجمان من العرق، وهو في يوم شات من ثقل القول الذي ينزل عليه قالت: فلما سرى عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سرى عنه وهو يضحك، فكان أول كلمة تكلم بها: يا عائشة أما الله فقد برأك فقالت أمي: قومي إليه فقلت: والله لا أقوم ولا أحمد إلا الله وأنزل الله: (إن الذين جاؤا بالإفك) العشر الآيات كلها

Reference:
     Sahih ukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 462 - Kitab Al-Maghazi - (English version)

There seems to be a consensus that this verse was revealed to prove Aisha's (or whoever was the victim) innocence with regards to the concocted accusations made against her.

Muslim in his Sahih, al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, ibn Katheer in his Kamil, ibn Sa'ad in his Tabaqat al-Kobra, al-Tabarani, al-Suyuti and many others have reported that the victim of this incident was Mariya al-Qutbiya.

How non-Muslims slander the prophet based on his marriage with Aisha (RA) and Zeinab (RA)
The marriage of the prophet Muhammad with the mother of believers, Aisha (ra), is an event that the disrespectful non-Muslims and haters of Islam, use against the prophet to accuse him of pedophilia or child molestation. They maintain the validity of their argument because the prophet was in his 50's while Aisha was about 9 or 11 when they consummated their marriage. I am forced to call these people ignorant and to consider their accusations slanderous.

Several narrations from Sahih Bukhari report that the prophet married our mother Aisha (RA) when she was 6 and he consummated this marriage when she was nine. I am not sure how accurate this information is, but it is irrelevant. The ignorant and hostile non-Muslims are slandering a person that the Quran calls the sublime symbol of morality and the most excellent exemplar that Allah has blessed us with, to follow for guidance. I will start the discussion by presenting the narrations from al-Bukhari.

Narrated Aisha: The Prophet engaged me when I was a girl of six (years). We went to Medina and stayed at the home of Bani-al-Harith bin Khazraj. Then I got ill and my hair fell down. Later on my hair grew (again) and my mother, Um Ruman, came to me while I was playing in a swing with some of my girl friends. She called me, and I went to her, not knowing what she wanted to do to me. She caught me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house. I was breathless then, and when my breathing became Allright, she took some water and rubbed my face and head with it. Then she took me into the house. There in the house I saw some Ansari women who said, "Best wishes and Allah's Blessing and a good luck." Then she entrusted me to them and they prepared me (for the marriage). Unexpectedly Allah's Apostle came to me in the forenoon and my mother handed me over to him, and at that time I was a girl of nine years of age.
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 234, Book: Manaquib al-Ansaar; Page 814, #3894

Narrated Hisham's father: Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married 'Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumed that marriage when she was nine years old.
References:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 236, Book: Manaquib al-Ansaar; Page 814, #3894
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64, Book: al-Nikaah; Page 1129, #5133
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 65, Book: al-Nikaah; Page 1129, #5134

First of all, the marriage of young girls in the Arab culture was among the norms, and was not an immoral act. It is illogical and unacceptable to condemn a custom that was considered normal 1400 years, based on today's standards and norms. Traditions that may seem abnormal to you, appear very normal to others! Your acts are considered immoral only if they violate the norms of your society. If they don't, then your acts are decent. If they violate the norms of another society, your acts are still decent relative to your society and your opinion bears no foundations and is subjective! Therefore, you can't criticize and slander the marriage of the prophet with Aisha.

Second, in everything the prophet does, there is wisdom and lessons to learn from. The prophet is not a regular person like us. The prophet is endowed with superior knowledge, wisdom and infallibility. Prophets act based on this exceptional knowledge and wisdom, and not instinct. Prophets act according to the teachings of Allah and not against them. If the prophet felt that this marriage was wrong, than he would not have done it. Moreover, there is no single verse in the Quran that condemns this marriage. If Allah did not condemn it, then who are you to do so?

Third, Allah says that the prophet is of sublime morality, that he is an excellent exemplar for mankind, that he does not err. Therefore, to explain any act undertaken by the prophet, you reason based on these virtues and not on something else that leads to a contradicting conclusion. What I mean is the following: You don't say the prophet has commited an immoral act, therefore, he can't have the virtues of the Quran, therefore he is not a true prophet. No! you have to reason the other way, meaning starting with the undisputed facts: The prophet has these virtues, and the Quran is the ultimate source for them, therefore what he has done does not break any morality rule, and there must be some wisdom behind it. Failing to understand what this wisdom is does not render the act immoral! We may never come to understand the true wisdom behind his marriage with Aisha at her young age.

Fourth, there is no narration in the Islamic books that criticized, opposed or treated the marriage of the prophet with Aisha as immoral. The family of Aisha (RA) and the prophet's party were both happy with the event. No Jews no Christians, no pagans condemned or objected to this marriage. Who are you to condemn this marriage when your own ancestors, who witnessed this event, did not do so! These facts suffice to state that this marriage was regarded as moral and decent to that society. How can people criticize the prophet's marriage when they don't even know what the norms of that society were? Besides, I remind you that the prophet waited 3 years before allowing Aisha (RA) to move in. Why? Simply to allow Aisha to reach her puberty. Does that surprise you? Never heard of girls attaining puberty at this young age? Under Islamic law, at puberty, male and females become accountable to their actions and are allowed to make their own decisions. So tell me, was the prophet's marriage an immoral and offending act?

Fifth, The marriage of girls at very young age is not a culture limited to the Arabs. In fact, many other societies from South America, Africa and others adopted the same culture. Do you consider them child molesters? Again, you can't condemn a person's act based on your society's standards! You have to compare his act with his society's norms.

Sixth, Have the insulting non-Muslims found any narrations from our books reporting that Aisha complained about her marriage to the prophet or that she developped some devastating emotional, psychological or mental problems, like any molested child would experience today? No. No such narrations exist!

Bottom line: If you closely research the life of the prophet from credible sources (and not spurious sources), you will find that he was indeed of sublime morality and an excellent exemplar for all mankind. More reading.... The fact is that the insulting non-Muslims have no valid support for their arguments. They act out of ignorance and hatred. Muslims may find many illogical and unacceptable beliefs or practices within other religions, but they won't slander these religions. In fact, it is our belief that every religion must be respected.

The mother of believers Zeinab (RA), daughter of Jahsh, was the cousin of the prophet and had a high social status. She was one of the early people to embrace Islam. Zayd bin Harith was a slave that the prophet had bought to set free. But he refused to leave and opted to stay with the prophet, who brought him up and considered him as his son. Zeinab, as well as her relatives, wanted the prophet to marry her. However, the prophet's desire was to marry Zeinab to Zaid. But Zeinab and her brother were reluctant to the idea. They wanted to exercise their freedom of deciding on the matter. It is reported that verse 36 of sourat al-Ahzab was revealed because of their reluctance to the prophet's decision.

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا -

Their marriage (8 years before Hijrat) was the symbol of equality between all social classes. However, it was not a happy one because the two were not compatible to each others. Their marriage did not bring happiness to any of the two. They were both good believers and they both loved the prophet. But Zaid wanted a divorce, and the prophet advised Zaid not to do so. To stop their misfortune, they divorced. Zeinab Became miserable. Her and her relatives reiterated their wish to the prophet, to marry her. This is when the following verse was revealed:

Quran 33:37
And when you said to him to whom Allah had shown favor and to whom you had shown a favor: Keep your wife to yourself and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; and you concealed in your soul what Allah would bring to light, and you feared men, and Allah had a greater right that you should fear Him. But when Zaid had accomplished his want of her, We gave her to you as a wife, so that there should be no difficulty for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when they have accomplished their want of them; and Allah's command shall be performed.
وَإِذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِي أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ وَتُخْفِي فِي نَفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَاهُ فَلَمَّا قَضَى زَيْدٌ مِّنْهَا وَطَرًا زَوَّجْنَاكَهَا لِكَيْ لَا يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِي أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَائِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْا مِنْهُنَّ وَطَرًا وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا

The marriage of the prophet with Zeinab was the object of great criticism at the time, because he married ex-wife of his son. Before Islam, an adopted son was treated like a biological son. This made the marriage of the prophet appear immoral. But Allah abolished these beliefs because under Islamic law, an adopted son is never like the biological son. It is prohibitted for a father to marry the ex-wife of his bilogical son, but not of his "adopted son".

Quran 33:4-5
Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body: nor has He made your wives whom ye divorce by Zihar your mothers: nor has He made your adopted sons your sons. Such is (only) your (manner of) speech by your mouths. But Allah tells (you) the Truth, and He shows the (right) Way - Call them by (the names of) their fathers: that is juster in the sight of Allah. But if ye know not their father's (names, call them) your Brothers in faith, or your maulas. But there is no blame on you if ye make a mistake therein: (what counts is) the intention of your hearts: and Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِي جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَاجَكُمُ اللَّائِي تُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَاءكُمْ أَبْنَاءكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَ - ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبَائِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوا آبَاءهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَمَوَالِيكُمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُم بِهِ وَلَكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا