Companions: Uthman ibn Affan
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Uthman ibn Affan is the third caliph of the Muslims. He was elected by a consultation between six men selected by Umar ibn al-Khattab: Ali bin Abu-Talib, Uthman bin Affan, Talha, Zubair, Abdel Rahman bin Awf, and Saad bin Abi-Waqqas. As a caliph, he appointed members of his family (Banu Ummaya) to become governors of the different Islamic cities. For instance, he removed Saad bin Abi-Waqqas from Kufa to replace him with the wicked and drunkard Walid ibn Uqbah to be the governor of Kufa. He made the unjust Marwan ibn al-Hakam the real ruler of the Muslim government and removed loyal rulers from their authorities to appoint his corrupted relatives. Uthman went as far as changing the Sunnah of the prophet, as you will read. He punished and beat companions such as Ammar ibn Yassir and Abu Dharr who were loyal to Islam and feared Allah. He banished Abu Dhar al-Ghifari to a desert where he died. Marwan played a great role in Uthman's behavior. He was the true devil!

Uthman's corrupted and unjust behavior continued to increase and to affect the people. Uthman was far from carrying out the laws of Allah. He was creating wealth to the Banu Ummayya and misery to the people. Uthman's failure to rule by the way of the Sunnah and the Quran caused his murder. A death that the Bnu Ummaya did not cease to use as a pretext to fight Imam Ali during his caliphate.

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.

Misdeeds:
The banishment of Abu Dharr
The beating of Ammar ibn Yassir
The beating of Abdullah ibn Masu'ud

Innovations:
Changing the traveller prayers (taqseer)
Washing the feet during the wudu instead of wiping them
Uthman creates new laws regarding the payement of Zakat
Uthman forbids muslims to combine hajj and umrah
 

The banishment of Abu Dharr

The beating of Ammar ibn Yassir

The beating of Abdullah ibn Masu'ud

Changing the traveller prayers (taqseer)
It is known that travellers shorten their prayers to 2 rakats during their journey. This practice was preserved for a certain time, and was then changed by Uthman later during his caliphate and was followed by Aisha in his practice.

Taqseer (shortening of the traveller prayer) was part of the Sunnah:

Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet once stayed for nineteen days and prayed shortened prayers. So when we travelled (and stayed) for nineteen days, we used to shorten the prayer but if we travelled (and stayed) for a longer period we used to offer the full prayer.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #186-187, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1080-1081, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1080, #1081)

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: I accompanied Allah's Apostle and he never offered more than two Rakat during the journey. Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman used to do the same.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #206, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 234, #1102, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1102)

Narrated Haritha bin Wahab: The Prophet led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rakat.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #189, Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1083, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1083)

Ibn 'Abbas reported: Allah has prescribed the prayer through the word of your Prophet (may peace be upon him) as four rak'ahs when resident, two when travelling, and one when danger is present.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 004, #1463, Chapter 96, The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 250, #(687)-5, Book: Salat al-Mussafereen wa Qassruha - (Arabic version, #(687)-5)

The Change of the Sunnah:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I offered the prayer with the Prophet, Abu Bakr and 'Umar at Mina and it was of two Rakat. 'Uthman in the early days of his caliphate did the same, but later on he started praying the full prayer.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #188 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 231, #1082, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1082)

Narrated 'Abdur Rahman bin Yazid:
We offered a four Rakat prayer at Mina behind Ibn 'Affan . 'Abdullah bin Masud was informed about it. He said sadly, "Truly to Allah we belong and truly to Him we shall return." And added, "I prayed two Rakat with Allah's Apostle at Mina and similarly with Abu Bakr and with 'Umar (during their caliphates)." He further said, "May I be lucky enough to have two of the four Rakat accepted (by Allah)."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #190 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 232, #1084, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1084)

Narrated 'Aisha: "When the prayers were first enjoined they were of two Rakat each. Later the prayer in a journey was kept as it was but the prayers for non-travellers were completed." Az-Zuhri said, "I asked 'Urwa what made Aisha pray the full prayers (in journey)." He replied, "She did the same as 'Uthman did."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, #196 - Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - (English version)
     Sahih Bukhari, Page 233, #1090, Book: Taqseer al-Salat - (Arabic version, #1090)

'A'isha reported: The prayer was prescribed as consisting of two rak'ats, the prayer in travelling remained the same, but the prayer at the place of residence was completed. (Zuhri said he asked 'Urwa why 'A'isha said prayer in the complete form during journey, and he replied that she interpreted the matter herself as 'Uthman did.)
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 004, #1460 - The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 250, #(685)-3, Book: Salat al-Mussafereen wa Qassriha - (Arabic version, #(685)-3)

 
Uthman creates new laws regarding the payement of Zakat
The following Hadith clearly shows that Uthman had created some new laws regarding the payement of Zakat. Ali disagreed with him, and informed him of what the prophet really did on Zakat. Uthman clearly stated that he does not need the tradition of the prophet.

Narrated Ibn Al-Hanafiya: If Ali had spoken anything bad about 'Uthman then he would have mentioned the day when some persons came to him and complained about the Zakat officials of 'Uthman. 'Ali then said to me, "Go to 'Uthman and say to him, 'This document contains the regulations of spending the Sadaqa of Allah's Apostle so order your Zakat officials to act accordingly." I took the document to 'Uthman. 'Uthman said, "Take it away, for we are not in need of it." I returned to 'Ali with it and informed him of that. He said, "Put it whence you took it." Narrated Muhammad bin Suqa: I heard Mundhir At-Tuzi reporting Ibn Hanafiya who said, "My father sent me saying, 'Take this letter to 'Uthman for it contains the orders of the Prophet concerning the Sadaqa.'"
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, #343, Book of al-Khums; Book: Page 655, #3111, (Arabic version, #3111)

 
Uthman forbids muslims to combine hajj and umrah (Tamattu')
The combination of Hajj and Umrah was allowed during the time of the prophet Muhammad (s) and was never prohibitted. This practice, was however prohibitted by Uthman, the third caliph.

The prophet allowed people to combine Umrah and Hajj:

Narrated 'Aisha: We set out with Allah's Apostles (to Mecca) in the year of the Prophet's Last Hajj. Some of us had assumed Ihram for 'Umra only, some for both Hajj and 'Umra, and others for Hajj only. Allah's Apostle assumed Ihram for Hajj. So whoever had assumed Ihram for Hajj or for both Hajj and 'Umra did not finish the Ihram till the day of sacrifice. (See Hadith No. 631, 636, and 639).
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #633, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 330, #1562 (Arabic version)

'Imran b. Husain said: There was revealed the verse of Tamattu' in Hajj in the Book of Allah and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to perform it. and then no verse was revealed abrogating the Tamattu' (form of Hajj), and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not forbid to do it till he died. So whatever a person said was his personal opinion. A hadith like this is transmitted on the authority of Imran b. Husain, but with this variation that he ('Imran) said: We did that (Tamattu') in the company of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he did not say anything but he (the Holy Prophet) commanded us to do it.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, Number 2831 - The Book of Pilgrimage - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 461, Number (1226)-172 & 173, Book: al-Hajj - (Arabic version, #(1226)-172 & 173)

Imran b. Husain reported: I am narrating to you a hadith by which Allah will benefit you (and the hadith is) that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) combined Hajj and 'Umra, and he did not forbid (this combination) till he died. (Moreover) nothing was revealed in the Holy Qur'an which forbade it. And I was always blessed till I was branded and then it (blessing) was abandoned. I then abandoned branding and it (the blessing was restored).
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2826 - The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 460, #(1226)-167, Book: Hajj - (Arabic version, #(1226)-167)

Mutarrif reported: 'Imran b. Husain sent for me during his illness of which he died, and said: I am narrating to you some ahadith which may benefit you after me. If I live you conceal (the fact that these have been transmitted by me), and if I die, then you narrate them if you like (and these are): I am blessed, and bear in mind that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined Hajj and Umra. Then no verse was revealed in regard to it in the Book of Allah (which abrogated it) and the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not forbid (from doing it). And whatever a person (, Umar) said was out of his personal opinion.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2828 - The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 460, #(1226)-168, Book: Hajj - (Arabic version, #(1226)-168)

'Imran b. al-Husain (Allah be pleased with him) said: Know well that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) combined 'Hajj and 'Umra, and nothing was revealed in the Book (to abrogate it), and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) too did not forbid us from (combining) them. And whatever a person said was out of his personal opinion.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2829 - The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 460, #(1226)-169, Book: Hajj - (Arabic version, #(1226)-169)

'Imran b. Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We performed Tamattu' (Hajj and 'Umra combining together) in the company of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and nothing was revealed in the Qur'an (concerning the abrogation of this practice), and whatever a person (Hadhrat 'Umar) said was his personal opinion. 'Imran b. Husain narrated this hadith (in these words also):" Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) performed Hajj Tamattu' and we also performed it along with him."
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2830 - The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - (English version)
     Sahih Muslim, Page 460, #(1226)-170 & 171, Book: Hajj - (Arabic version, #(1226)-170 & 171)

The third caliph, Uthman, prohibitted the combination of Umrah and Hajj:
There was a confrontation between imam Ali and Uthman when Ali noticed that Uthman was prohibitting the performance of Umrah and Hajj together, a practice of the prophet. Ali insisted that he would not leave the tradition of the prophet because of the caliph's personal opinion. It is clear that Uthman was deviating from the Sunnah of the prophet. It is also clear that there was a clear desagreement between Ali and Uthman, and therefore between the companions, regarding the tradition of the prophet. How could this desagreement be a blessing!? I feel the urge to repeat the following verse:

Quran 33:36
It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.

Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam: I saw 'Uthman and 'Ali. 'Uthman used to forbid people to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Hajj-al-Qiran (Hajj and 'Umra together), and when 'Ali saw (this act of 'Uthman), he assumed Ihram for Hajj and 'Umra together saying, "Lubbaik for 'Umra and Hajj," and said, "I will not leave the tradition of the Prophet on the saying of somebody."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #634, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 330, #1563 (Arabic version)
     Kanz al-U'ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, vol 5, #12460 ()

Narrated Shu'ba: Abu Jamra Nasr bin 'Imran Ad-Duba'i said, "I intended to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu' and the people advised me not to do so. I asked Ibn Abbas regarding it and he ordered me to perform Hajj-at-Tammatu'. Later I saw in a dream someone saying to me, 'Hajj-Mabrur (Hajj performed in accordance with the Prophet's tradition without committing sins and accepted by Allah) and an accepted 'Umra.' So I told that dream to Ibn Abbas. He said, 'This is the tradition of Abu-l-Qasim.' Then he said to me, 'Stay with me and I shall give you a portion of my property.' " I (Shu'ba) asked, "Why (did he invite you)?" He (Abu Jamra) said, "Because of the dream which I had seen."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #638, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 331, #1567 (Arabic version)

Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab: 'Ali and 'Uthman differed regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu' while they were at 'Usfan (a familiar place near Mecca). 'Ali said, "I see you want to forbid people to do a thing that the Prophet did?" When 'Ali saw that, he assumed Ihram for both Hajj and 'Umra.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #640, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 331, #1569 (Arabic version)
     Kanz al-U'ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, vol 5, #12486 ()

Narrated 'Imran: We performed Hajj-at-Tamattu' in the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and then the Quran was revealed (regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu') and somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu') according his own opinion.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #642, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 331, #1571 (Arabic version)

Narrated Abu Jamra: I asked Ibn Abbas about Hajj-at-Tamattu'. He ordered me to perform it. I asked him about the Hadi (sacrifice). He said, "You have to slaughter a camel, a cow or a sheep, or you may share the Hadi with the others." It seemed that some people disliked it (Hajj-at-Tamattu). I slept and dreamt as if a person was announcing: "Hajj Mabrur and accepted Mut'ah (Hajj-At-Tamattu')" I went to Ibn Abbas and narrated it to him. He said, "Allah is Greater. (That was) the tradition of Abu Al-Qasim (i.e. Prophet). Narrated Shu'ba that the call in the dream was. "An accepted 'Umra and Hajj-Mabrur."
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, #747, The Book of Pilgrimmage (Hajj); Page 354, #1688 (Arabic version)

'Abdullah b. Shaqiq reported that 'Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) used to forbid Tamattu', whereas 'Ali (Allah be pleased with him) ordered to do it. 'Uthman said a word to 'Ali, but 'Ali said: You know that we used to perform Tamattu' with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said: It is right, but we entertained fear. This hadith has been narrated by Shu'ba with the same chain of transmitters.
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2815, The Book of Pilgrimage; Page 459, #(1223)-158 (Arabic version)
     Kanz al-U'ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, vol 5, #12488 ()

Sa'id b. al-Musayyab reported that 'Ali and 'Uthman (Allah be pleased with them) met at 'Usfan; and Uthman used to forbid (people) from performing Tamattu' and 'Umra (during the period of Hajj), whereupon 'Ali said: What is your opinion about a matter which the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did but you forbid it? Thereupon Uthman said: You leave us alone, whereupon he ('Ali) said: I cannot leave you alone. When 'Ali saw this, he put on Ihram for both of them together (both for Hajj and 'Umra).
Reference:
     Sahih Muslim, Book 007, #2816, The Book of Pilgrimage; Page 459, #(1223)-159 (Arabic version)

 
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