Hadith al-Thaqalayn - part 6-1 (The Book of Allah and my Sunnah)
Let's now analyze the version of hadith al-Thaqalayn Kitabullah wa Sunnati (the Book Allah and my Sunnah). This narration was discussed in a different paper under the chapter dealing with the topic of Hadith.

The narration of the companion Abu Hurayra:
This narration is recorded in the following sources: al-Jami'i al-Sagheer by Jalaluddeen al-Suyuti (vol 3, #3282) without a detailed chain of transmission (al-Suyuti remained silent about it), however considered it hasan in vol 3 #3923; al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (vol 1, #319/32), al-Hakim remained silent on the Isnad of this narration); Kanz al-U'ummal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (vol 1, #875, #876, #949) without an Isnad but said that Abu Bakr al-Shafi'i recorded it in al-Gheelaniyat from Abu Hurayra; Kanz al-U'ummal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (vol 1, #955) and said it was recorded by Abul Nasr al-Sajazi in al-Ibana from Abu Huraira and commented (al-Sajazi) that it was a very odd narration; al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra, al-U'uqayli in his al-Kamel Fil Dua'afa', al-Darqutni in his Sunan reported the fabricated version of the Hadith with Isnads leading to Abu Hurayra.

In the Isnad of all three, there is a narrator called Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi who is has been rejected as a narrator of Hadith by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Mue'en, al-Bukhari, Abu Hatem, al-Nisa'i, ibn Habban and Abu Nae'em. Here is the version reported by al-Bayhaqi:

أخبرنا أبو الحـسين بـن بشران العدل ببغـداد، أنبا أبو أحـمد حمزة بن محمّد بن العبّاس، ثنا عبد الـكريم بن الهيثم، أنبا العبـّاس بـن الهيـثم، ثنا صالح ابن موسى الطلـحي(1)، عـن عـبد العزيز بن رفيـع(2) عن أبي صالح، عن أبي هريرة قال: قال رسول الله(صلى الله عليه وآله): ((إنِّي قد خلّفت فِيكُمْ ما لَنْ تضلّوا بعدهما، ما أخذتم بهما، أو عملتم بهما: كتاب الله وسنّتي، ولن يَفْتَرِقَا حتّى يِردا على الحوض))

Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi:

  1. Rejected by ibn Mue'en: he is worthless (ليس بشيء) as quoted by ibn Hajar al-A'asqalani in Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb

  2. Rejected by al- Bukhari: he is repudiated (منكر الحديث ) as quoted by ibn Hajar al-A'asqalani in Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb and al-Dhahabi in Meezan al-I'itidal

  3. ibn Abu Hatem: he is a weak narrator, and is strongly repudiated and he narrates lies from the trustworthy (ضعيف الحديث، منكر الحديث جداً كثير المناكير عن الثقات، ) as quoted by ibn Hajar al-A'asqalani in Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb

  4. al-Juzani also weakened him: (ضعيف الحديث على حسنه)

  5. al-Nisa'i also rejected him: his narration is not written ... he is abandoned (لا يُكتب حديثه...متروك الحديث ) as quoted by ibn Hajar al-A'asqalani in Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb

  6. ibn Habban said he can't be relied on (لا يجوز الاحتجاج به)

  7. al-Hafedh al-Dhahabi in Meezan al-I'itidal (vol 2) said: he is weak
    صالح بن موسى بن عبدالله بن إسحاق بن طلحة بن عبيدالله القرشي الطَّلحي كوفي ضعيف يروي عن عبد العزيز بن رفيع

  8. al-Hafedh al-Dhahabi in Meezan al-I'itidal also quoted Yehya ibn Mue'en saying: he is worthless and his narration cannot be written
    (ليس بشيء و لا يُكتب حديثه)

  9. Abu Nae'em also rejected him as a narrator of Hadith and said: he is abandoned and narrates falsehood
    (متروك الحديث، يروي المناكير) as quoted by ibn Hajar al-A'asqalani in Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb

  10. Islam Mansur Abdul Hameed revised the book of al-Bayhaqi al-Sunan al-Kubra (vol 10, #20337) and said the following about the narration of Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi through Abu Huraira: it is weak due to Saleh who is abandoned when it comes to narrating hadith (ضعيف مداره صالح و هو متروك الحديث)

  11. The narration with the same subnarrator was also recorded in the book Sharhi Usul Itiqad Ahlul Sunnah wal Jamaa'a (vol 1, #90) written by al-Haffedh ibn al-Hassan ibn Mansur al-Tabari al-lalaka'i and was revised by Dr. Ahmad ibn Sa'ad Hamdan al-Ghamiddi. The latter made the following comment: Its Isnad is weak, it contains Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi about whom al-Dhahabi said he is weak, Yehya (ibn Mue'en) said he is worthless and his narration is not written, al-Bukhari said his hadith is repudiated, al-Nisa'i said he is abandoned...
    سنده: ضعيف فيه: صالح بن موسى الطَّلحي قال فيه الذهبي ضعيف وقال يحي: ليس بشيء و لا يُكتب حديثه وقال البخاري: منكر الحديث وقال النسائي: متروك وقال بن العدي: هو عندي ممن لا يتعمد الكذب

  12. The narration with the same subnarrator Saleh ibn Musa is also recorded by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi in his book al-Faqeeh wal Mutaffaqeh (#274). The book was revised by Abu Abdul Rahman A'adel ibn Yussef al-A'azazi whoo said the Isnad of this narration is weak.

  13. The narration with the same subnarrator is also recorded by ibn Qayyim al-Jawziya in Ii'ilam al-Muwaqqie'en (vol 4) with commentary by Abu U'ubayda Mash-hur ibn Hassan al-Salman. The commentator said the Isnad is very weak due to Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi; ibn Mue'en said he is worthless and his narration is not written; al-Bukhari said he is repudiated (unreliable); al-Nisa'i said he is abandoned; Abu Hatem said he is very repudiated and he narrates false narrations from the trustworthy; ibn I'iddee said his narrations are not considered by anyone.
    و هذا إسناده ضعيف جداً، صالح بن موسى الطَّلحي هذا قال ابن معين: ليس بشيء و لا يُكتب حديثه وقال البخاري: منكر الحديث وقال النسائي: متروك وقال أبو حاتم: منكر الحديث جداً عن الثقات وقال بن العدي: عامَّة ما يرويه لا يتابعه عليه أحدز

  14. Bashar A'awwadd Ma'aruf revised the book of Muwatta of Imam Malik and said the following about the narration: the narration of Abu Huraryra contains Saleh ibn Musa and he is abandoned, therefore the narration of Abu Hurayra is very weak.
    ثم ساق حديث أبي هريرة باسناده وفيه صالح بن موسى الطلحي وهو متروك فحديث ابي هريرة ضعيف جداً

  15. al-Haffedh ibn Shaheen also recorded the narration of Abu Hurayra with Saleh ibn Musa as a subnarrator in his book al-Targheeb fi Fada'il al-A'amal (#528). The book was revised by Dr. Saleh Ahmad Mussleh al-Wae'el and said: Saleh ibn Musa is in its Isnad and this subnarrator is abandoned.
    في إسناده صالح بن موسى بن إسحاق التيمي وهو متروك

  16. Ali ibn Umar al-Darqutni in his Sunan also recorded the narration of Abu Hurayra with Saleh ibn Musa as a subnarrator (vol 5). The book was revised by Shua'ayb al-Arna'oot. After recording the narration, al-Darqutni said: Saleh ibn Musa is weak and his narration can't be used as proof.
    صالح بن موسى ضعيف لا يحتج بحديثه

  17. The narration is also recorded in al-Kamel fi Dua'afa' al-Rijal by al-Imam al-Haffedh Abu Ahmad Abdullah ibn A'adi al-Jarjani (vol 4, #918) and he said that he was weak, repudiated and abandoned. After recording some of the narrations from Saleh from Abdul Azziz ibn Rufaya'a, al-A'adi said: these narrations are not from the memorized ones (not known).
    وهذه الأحاديث عن عبد العزيز غير محفوظات، إنما يرويها عنه صالح بن موسى...

  18. al-Zaylae'e repeated all of the above in his book Nassb al-Raya when discussing another narration from Saleh ibn Musa.
    وهو معلول بصالح، قال الشيخ في "الإِمام": هو صالح بن موسى بن عبد اللّه بن إسحاق بن طلحة بن عبيد اللّه، قال ابن معين: ليس بشيء، وقال ابن أبي حاتم: سألت أبي عنه، فقال: منكر الحديث جداً، لا يعجبني حديثه، انتهى. وقال البخاري: منكر الحديث، وقال النسائي: منكر الحديث، وقال الدارقطني في "كتاب العلل": هذا حديث اختلف فيه على موسى بن طلحة

  19. While referring to other narration and in many places of his book majmau'ul Zawa'id, al-Haffedh al-Haythami stated that Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi was a weak and abandoned subnarrator. Here are some of them:
    Vol 2, #3673: وفي إسناد الكبير صالح بن موسى الطلحي وهو ضعيف
    vol 3, #3769: رواه البزار وفيه صالح بن موسى الطلحي وهو ضعيف ضعفه الأئمة، وقال ابن عدي: وهو ممن لا يتعمد الكذب
    vol 3, #4380: رواه الطبراني في الأوسط وفيه صالح بن موسى الطلحي وهو ضعيف
    vol 4, #6045: رواه أبو يعلى وفيه صالح بن موسى الطلحي وهو متروك

    Other places are vol 5 #9770 (he is abandoned); vol 8 #12936 (he is abandoned); vol 9 #14958 (he is weak). Badriddeen al-A'ayni mentioned in his book U'umdat al-Qari that al-Darqutni considered Saleh to be weak; al-Imam al-Manawi stated that Saleh ibn Musa was considered weak and quoted Abu Hatem to have said Saleh is considered repudiated; al-Manawi said al-Haythami considered Saleh to be an abandoned narrator; Imam al-Shukani in Nayl al-Awttar also said that he was an abandoned subnarrator; Imam al-Sakkhawi also considered him weak in his book al-Maqased al-Hasana; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (Kanz al-U'ummal, vol 12, #35654) quoted Abu Nae'em to have said in his book al-Ma'arifa that Saleh was weak (وفيه صالح بن موسى الطلحي ضعيف).

  20. Sheikh Shua'ayb al-Arna'ut revised the Musnad of ibn Hanbal and said the following about Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi (vol 6, page 362, in the footnote of hadith #3811):
    We say that Saleh ibn Musa ibn Ishaq ibn Talha al-Taymee is an abandoned subnarrator, and al-Bukhari said he was a repudiated narrator.
    قلنا صالح بن موسى هو بن إسحاق بن طلحة التيمي، متروك، قال فيه البخاري: منكر الحديث

    In volume 17, page 174 of the same book, after mentioning the version of the Thaqalayn which reads the Book of Allah and Nassabi (progeny), he said:

    This Isnad is weak due to the weakness of Saleh ibn Musa al-Talhhi.
    هذا إسناد ضعيف لضعف صالح بن موسى الطلحي

    Shua'ayb al-Arna'ut said this narration was recorded by al-Bazzar. Interestingly, this is the version recorded by one of the oldest books, the Musnad of al-Bazzar (died in 292). Adel ibn Sa'ad revised the book and when he reached this narration (#8993), he put the word sunnati between parentheses and said in the footnote that the original narration has nassabi instead of sunnati. The following is the actual narration:

    حدثنا أحمد بن منصور ثنا داود بن عمرو ثنا صالح بن موسى بن عبدالله قال: حدثني عبدالعزيز بن رفيع عن أبي صالح عن أبي هريرة قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: "اني قد خلفت فيكم اثنين كتاب الله ونسبي ولن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض".

    This narration was also recorded by al-Haffedh al-Haythami in Kashf al-Asttar as well as ibn Hajar in al-Mukhtassar. al-Haythami also recorded it in Majmau'ul Zawa'id (vol 9, #14958) and traced it back to al-Bazzar:

    عن أبي هريرة قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إني خلفت فيكم اثنين لن تضلوا بعدهما أبداً: كتاب ونسبي، ولن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض".
    رواه البزار و فيه صالح بن موسى الطَّلحي وهو ضعيف

    Imam al-Samhudi (died 911) in Jawahir al-I'iqdayn Fi Fadli al-Sharafayn also recorded the same narration from Abu Huraira and said that it was recorded by al-Bazzar in his Musnad.

    So it looks like in the original narration of Abu Hurayra, the second of the thaqalayn was nassabi (progeny) and not sunnati. Was there an alteration of this weak narration??